In Japuji Guru Nanak has laid down the principle on which earth was created by the Almighty as under:
ਰਾਤੀ ਰੁਤੀ ਥਿਤੀ ਵਾਰ ॥ ਪਵਣ ਪਾਣੀ ਅਗਨੀ ਪਾਤਾਲ ॥
ਤਿਸੁ ਵਿਚਿ ਧਰਤੀ ਥਾਪਿ ਰਖੀ ਧਰਮ ਸਾਲ ॥
God created nights, seasons, luner days and week days, wind, water, fire and nether lands,
In the midst of these He established the earth as the home for the Lord meditation.
Morals inhabiting the earth have violated the principle ordained by the Almighty. Social order, around the world, is in turmoil strife, discord, hartrd, falsehood, rage, jealousy, violence in the name of religion, caste, creed and the order of the day. Powerful clans was all means, however foul, to dominate other and weaker ones struggle to maintain even their identity. There is exploitation of poor by the rich, of the downtrodden by the higher ones, minorities by the majority. There is all-round lust for power money and sex. Power is captured by the selfish, egoistic, morally bankrupt illiterate and debauched persons. Those out of power are no better and are impatient to usurp power. It the process, truthful living is confined to a few. Disaffection has spread in all quarters. Law enforcing agencies have become oppressive. The Wicked defy the law and the unrighteous have overcome the worthy. Evil doers have taken the place of God, men and women and unworthy people have taken the pride of place.
Divine knowledge and observance of Divine virtues is hard to find. Falsehood and avarice have taken over the human minds resulting in spiritual death. Center stay has been over taken over by Fake "godmen' posing no less than the pious. In the name of religion, they exploit the innocent and distressed people. There is little space for devotional or spiritual teachings with the result that moral ethical values are hard to find in any realm of society. There is no trace of inner contemplation and introspection. Useless and meaningless rituals have marred the essence of contemplation.
Naïve attribute the dismal state of society to the prevelance of 'Kalyug' which in ancient Indian belief is the fourth cycle of time from the beginning of earth. It is believed that the earth is standing or is supported by four leged bull and each leg significes a virtue and that in the 'Kalyug' only one leg remains, the three legs having been broken, three main virtues of faith, truth, and mercy have vanished and 'Kalyug' has set in with all vices and sinful society. It is believed that 'Kalyug' started in 17/18 Feb 3102 BCE after the death of Lord Krishna and it has a span of 4.32 years, during which a new Avtar by the name of "Kalki' will appear to redeem the earth back to 'Satyug' i.e. when there will be truthful living.
In Sikhism there is no space for such unscientific and mythological notions and beliefs. In Japji Guru Nanak had dispelled the idea of earth standing on a bul's horns.
ਧੌਲੁ ਧਰਮੁ ਦਇਆ ਕਾ ਪੂਤੁ ॥ ਸੰਤੋਖੁ ਥਾਪਿ ਰਖਿਆ ਜਿਨਿ ਸੂਤਿ ॥
ਜੇ ਕੋ ਬੂਝੈ ਹੋਵੈ ਸਚਿਆਰੁ ॥ ਧਵਲੈ ਉਪਰਿ ਕੇਤਾ ਭਾਰੁ ॥
ਧਰਤੀ ਹੋਰੁ ਪਰੈ ਹੋਰੁ ਹੋਰੁ ॥ ਤਿਸ ਤੇ ਭਾਰੁ ਤਲੈ ਕਵਣੁ ਜੋਰੁ॥
(The Mythical) bull is piety, the off spring of compassion, which is patiently holding the earth in order.
How much load there is on the bull? If some one understands this, he becomes a true man.
There are more worlds beyond (this) earth, more and more.
What power is that which supports their weight from underneath?
Instead, Guru Nanak says that the mythical bull of pretty is the outcome of God's compassion, it (God's compassion) which holds the earth at its position with patience, One will be called truthful if he realises this fact one can know as to how this earth is sustained by this supposed bull. Beyond this earth, there are many more and more earths. What power bears their load underneath. So instead of any mythical bull, what sustains life on this earth the values of Dharama (Moral discipline and compassion.
Not only earth, the universe came into being by His Will, Earth exists and moves, according to His will. There is no other power which can influence, much less control, the process of nature which is His command. Earth will contine to exist so long as He wills and no star, no planets no God, demigod, demon can alter his Will. The division of time into spans, and epochs are creations of human mind. God's will makes no distinction between one period of time and another.
So called Kalyug (Dark age) is more a the state of mind of an individual or a group of individuals constituting society rather than any time period or space. Guru Nanak dev ji describes with the mythological period of Kalyug as under:
ਸੋਈ ਚੰਦੁ ਚੜਹਿ ਸੇ ਤਾਰੇ ਸੋਈ ਦਿਨੀਅਰੁ ਤਪਤ ਰਹੈ ॥
ਸਾ ਧਰਤੀ ਸੋ ਪਉਣੁ ਝੁਲਾਰੇ ਜੁਗ ਜੀਅ ਖੇਲੇ ਥਾਵ ਕੈਸੇ॥੧॥
ਜੀਵਨ ਤਲਬ ਨਿਵਾਰਿ ॥ ਹੋਵੈ ਪਰਵਾਣਾ ਕਰਹਿ ਧਿਙਾਣਾ ਕਲਿ ਲਖਣ ਵੀਚਾਰਿ ॥
ਕਿਤੈ ਦੇਸਿ ਨ ਆਇਆ ਸੁਣੀਐ ਤੀਰਥ ਪਾਸਿ ਨ ਬੈਠਾ॥
ਦਾਤਾ ਦਾਨੁ ਕਰੇ ਤਹ ਨਾਹੀ ਮਹਲ ਉਸਾਰਿ ਨ ਬੈਠਾ ॥੨॥
ਜੇ ਕੋ ਸਤੁ ਕਰੇ ਸੋ ਛੀਜੈ ਤਪ ਘਰਿ ਤਪੁ ਨ ਹੋਈ ॥
ਜੇ ਕੋ ਨਾਉ ਲਏ ਬਦਨਾਵੀ ਕਲਿ ਕੇ ਲਖਣ ਏਈ ॥
The same moon and the same stars rise and the same sun blazes in the sky
The same is the earth and the same wind blows. The age abides within the mortals. How can another place be ascribed to it?
Shed though they desire to remain alive. He who plays the tyrant is approved. Deem this to be the surest sign of the Darkage.
The darkage is not heard visiting any country or sitting at any shrine.
It is not there, where the man of bounty practices charity, not it is seated in the mansion, built by it. If anyone practices truth, he is frustrated and prosperity visits not the home of a penitent.
If anyone utter the Lord's Name, he is disrepute. These are are characteristic of the Darkage.
It is elementary that process of nature goes in continuously in a disciplined manner regardless of man-made calendar of days, months and years virtues and vices exist in the mind of an individual. When, feelings of love compassion, humility are lost, the individual falls into a dark state of mind and that is Kalyug in him/her. Similarly, when greed, rage, ego enter into a mind, it entails Kalyug for him/ her. In society when a group becomes 'tyrant' indulges in violence, it brings Kalyug, particularly when it is either not condemned or is glossed over. On the other side for a truthful life, with honest living, compassion, humility in mind with equipoise, there is no Kalyug.
As Dark age Kalyug is only state of mind of an individual, No Prophet no Avtar will emerge from clouds to mitigate the ill effects. There will be no war between any prophet and demon-figure of Kalyug. Humanity need not wait hundreds of centuries for any 'Avtar to emerge and take the earth and its individuals back to 'Satyug' of virtues, The way to lead the humanity to better times and dispel the alternative solution is here in Guru Granth Sahib. Guru Arjan Dev, the fifth Guru has prescribed the panacea for all prevailing ills of humanity:
ਅਬ ਕਲੂ ਆਇਓ ਰੇ ॥ ਇਕੁ ਨਾਮੁ ਬੋਵਹੁ ਬੋਵਹੁ ॥ ਅਨ ਰੂਤਿ ਨਾਹੀ ਨਾਹੀ ॥
ਮਤੁ ਭਰਮਿ ਭੂਲਹੁ ਭੂਲਹੁ ॥ ਗੁਰ ਮਿਲੇ ਹਰਿ ਪਾਏ ॥ ਜਿਸੁ ਮਸਤਕਿ ਹੈ ਲੇਖਾ ॥
ਮਨ ਰੁਤਿ ਨਾਮ ਰੇ ॥ ਗੁਨ ਕਹੇ ਨਾਨਕ ਹਰਿ ਹਰੇ ਹਰਿ ਹਰੇ ॥
O, the Darkage has now arrived,
Sow, sow thou the one Lord's name
No, it is not the season for other planting.
Wander and stray thou not in doubt.
He, on whose forehead, such destiny is writ attain in his God, on meeting the Guru.
O my soul, this is the season to remember the Name.
Nanak utters ever the God, God, God, God's praise.
At the present stage of materialistic and hollow civilization, the fertile field of human mind tends to go dark by lust, anger, hatred, jealousy. It needs to sow the seed of sacred name of God which will sprout into flowers and fruits to make the world a better place to live in. The only way to get out of despair and ills in the society to is inculcate virtues of truth, truthful living, contentment, humanity, compassion, modesty, non-violence, Universal brotherhood, respect for all human beings, men and women, high and low. With that end in view, mortals have to contemplate on Name of God (Naam).
All virtues and shades of Satyug enter into one's whole person a through the simran or continuous rememberance of God's sacred name and faith in His Will.
ęCopyright Institute of Sikh Studies, 2019, All