THE HEART OF SIKHISM
Religion deals essentially with three subjects, the nature of Reality, the nature of Man, of its relation to this Reality and, lastly, with the way to reach this Reality. The first two subjects belong to Philosophy proper and it is the third subject which brings the other two into the domain of religion. As long as religion merely defines the nature of Reality and seeks to lay down the true values of human activity, it is no more than Philosophy and Ethics, but when it seeks and promises to help human soul to take these truths to heart and to put them into action with the object of resolving the problem of suffering and alienation which is inherent in the innermost core of man, his self-consciousness, then it becomes religion proper. Man can, possibly, keep his mind away from the intellectual problems of the mystery of universe, the nature of his own self and that of the world around him and the nature of the relationship that binds both, but he cannot help yearning and suffering. As Pascal has said, “Man is the only wretched creature that there is” and a religion which did not whole-heartedly tackle this problem would ring hollow. In this sense, Buddhism was eminently right when it declared that, the basic human problem, demanding resolution is “sab dukha” i.e. all individuated existence entails suffering which means that suffering inheres in the very nature of the human psyche.
Sikhism is essentially a Religion of the Way, i.e. something that must be lived and experienced rather than something that must be intellectually grasped and declared. True, there can be practice without the dogma. Sikhism, therefore, has its doctrines, its dogmatic stand, its view of Reality, its view of the nature of man, and their inner relationship, but it lays primary stress on the practice, the discipline, “the way which leads to “the cessation of suffering”, as Gautam, the Buddha formulated it.
A careful reading and understanding of the Sikh scripture reveals that the religion of Sikhism has three postulates implicit in its teachings, One, that that there is no essential duality between the spirit and the matter. 1 Two, that man alone has the capacity to enter into conscious participation in the process of the Evolution, with further implication that the process of Evolution, as understood by the modern man, has come to a dead-end and it, therefore, must be rescued b the conscious effort of man who alone is capable now of furthering this process.2 Three, that then man has reached the highest goal of Evolution, namely, the vision of God, he must not be absorbed back into God but must remain earth conscious so as to transform this mundane world into a higher and spiritual plane of existence.3
The first of these propositions is a postulate of Philosophy. The view taken by Sikhism on this point is that ‘the spirit’ and ‘the matter’ are not antagonistic to or dissevered from each other, the one subtle, the other gross, but they are simply and just dissimilated, and that the core of the human nature which is self-conscious, and the physical nature which is not conscious and is utterly inert, are accountable ultimately in nature of ‘the subtle.’ The mathematico-physical aspect of Nature, to a mode of consciousness which is pin-pointed and individuated, appears to be poles apart from itself. Indeed, consciousness as ‘subject’ is wholly dependent for its very existence upon the object as its polarity. A true comprehension, however, which results from proper religious discipline and culture of sublimating and integrating the human faculties, removes this basic duality between the mind and the matter. “When I saw truly, I knew that all was primeval. Nanak, the subtle and the gross are, in fact, identical.”4 This assertion is repeated in the Sikh scripture again and again in exegesis of the basic formula of Sikh dogmatism, given as the opening line of the Sikh scripture, in which it is declared that, “the Primary is true, the pre-Temporal is true, the Phenomena is true, and the yet-to-be-Evolved is, likewise, true.”5 This view of Reality which Sikhism postulates, has far-reaching implications, both in respect of the traditional Hindu philosophy, and the problem of the true conduct for man. Firstly, it, in essence, repudiates the basic concept of Hindu thought embodied in the doctrine of Maya which is stated as the illusory Power which createth illusion and ignorance. True, the subtle Hindu mind characterises it as, anarvacni ‘unsayable, whether is or is not,” “real yet not real,” but it definitely is a veiling obscuring Power of nature, and an agent of error and illusion, accountable for the manifestation of all phenomena. In Sikhism, the term, Maya, is retained but it is interpreted otherwise so as to make it not a category of existence, but a mere stage and plane in the involution of the spirit. The result of this re-interpretation is replete with tremendous consequences for the practical outlook of man. The world of phenomena is no longer a dream and a phantasmagoria in the minds of the gods, to be by-passed and shunned by serious minded persons. It is as real, in fact as the Ultimate Reality, but the perceiving human mind is beset with limitations that must be transcended and cut as under. It is this that has made it possible for Sikhism to lay down that the highest religious discipline must be practiced while remaining active in the socio-political context, and not by giving up and renouncing the worldly life. It is this which has given the Sikh mind a sense of urgency, and imparted to it a genuine strain of extroversion which the Western mind has achieved only adopting basically different postulates, such as that, this one life on earth is the only life a soul may look forward to till eternity, and that, the essence of the real is its characteristic, of being the object of sensory-motor perception. It is the peculiar virtue of Sikhism that while it retains the primacy of the spirit over the matter, it prevents human life from degenerating into the purely secular and expedient modes of activity. It is a further virtue of this postulate of Sikh religion that it lends the necessary sense of urgency to the mind of man and imparts to it an extrovert outlook, in so far as it is desirable to retain them for human welfare, material prosperity and spiritual advancement on this earth.
The second postulate inherent in the teachings of Sikhism is, that the blind urge of Evolution, the thrust of the Life Force, after reaching the point of creating the self-conscious man, has come to a dead end and by itself is incapable of making any further real progress, unless the self-consciousness, in which is grounded the will of man, now takes a consciously guided and directed part in this evolutionary process: “Hail, the Guru for, he teaches the ascent of man over himself.” 7 This line of thought, in various forms, runs throughout the voluminous Sikh scripture, and it is legitimate to say that the concept of the “Superman”, which agitated the mind of Nietzsche during the 19th century in Europe, and from whom the modern Indian thinker, Aurovindo Ghose, has taken his cue, is first of all adumberated in the Sikh scripture and that, the conscious effort man alone is now, at this stage, capable of furthering the process of Evolution that has gone so far to make and shape the phenomenal world, is now a familiar concept to thinking modern minds.
But by far the most startling insight of Sikhism is that the true end of the man is not such· a Vision of God that ends in re-absorption of the individual into the Absolute Reality, but the emergence of a race of God-conscious men, who remain earth-aware and thus operate in the mundane world of the phenomena, with the object of transforming and spiritualising it into a higher and ampler plane of ·existence. “The God-conscious man is animated with an intense desire to do good in this world.” 8 By and large the aim of the highest religious discipline has been taken and accepted as the attainment of abiding and self-sufficient identity with, or propinquity to God. It was not thus thought in terms of utilising the God-consciousness for transforming and spiritualising the life on earth, and transformation of humanity. It is this stance of Sikhism which is the true prototype of the sophisticated philosophy of the modern Hindu sage Aurovindo Ghose, though there might be no direct indebtedness to the Sikh thought. Those however, who know how basic and revolutionary trends of human thought of this kind are capable .of influencing men and minds, far separated by distance and time, without contact or causal connection from its original appearance, may perceive no difficulty in seeing the nexus between the two. In this .connection it is interesting to recall that not long ago, when Ramakrishna the Paramhamsa, the modern . Hindu theophant, was at his most critical stage of blocked theophanic development, it was a Sikh ascetic, Udasi Totapuri, who imparted to the Paramhamsa the Sikh esoteric mantram efficacious for removing impediments on the spiritual path, and that is why the most illustrious chela of the Paramhamsa, Swami Vivekanand, so often uttered and introduced into his writings and speeches the Sikh mystic formula, Vaheguru, so as to sustain his flow of inspiration.
What is the discipline, and the practice which Sikhism recommends as necessary and efficacious for attaining this God-consciousness, and for yoking it to the evolutionary transformation of life and humanity on this earth, and on the plane of mundane existence? It is the Doctrine and Practice of the Name. “In the Age through which humanity is passing now no other practice but that of the Name is efficacious. Therefore; practice the Discipline of Name” 9 This is the message repeated again and again in the Sikh scripture.10 “O, my mind, there is no help but in the Name; other ways and practices are full of pitfalls.”
Now, which is this ‘Discipline of the Name’ which Sikhism teaches, as the essence of religion for mankind in the present Age?
In the history of great religions, five paths have been recognized as efficacious for leading to liberation, i.e., for achievement of the summum bonum of religion: 1. disinterested action, known as the Karmayoga inHindu religious thought; 2. devotion known as bhakti; 3. gnosis, the jnan; 4. the ritual known, as yajn; ,and 5. asceticism, maceration of tapas. This fifth and the last path to liberation is a typical Indian contribution to the history of religious practices. All the other four have been accepted, in some form or other with varying degrees of stress on one or the other as valid paths to liberation. In the Sikh scripture, the first three are variously mentioned and summed under “the Discipline of Name”. No logically systematic account of the theory or practice of ‘The Name’ is given in’ ‘the Sikh scripture, but throughout its voluminous pages, it stresses, again and again, with a wealth of metaphor and imagery, illustrative material and exposition, that the , discipline of the Name is the only suitable and efficacious practice for leading to the Vision of God for final fulfillment of man, for cancelling his basic alienation and for achieving the unitive experience of the Numenon. It is further sententiously declared that, “Sikhism is the religion of the Name.” 11
In their Congregational Prayer, for the last three centuries, the Sikhs, morning and evening, conclude their collective supplication to God by saying, ‘‘May the Religion of the Name, preached by Nanak, increase and prevail in the world, ever and for ever more”. 12 The discipline of bhakti, the discipline of karma, and the dis-interested works, are also mentioned, commended and praised but throughout it is tacitly assumed that it is a part and parcel of the basic Discipline, “the Practice of the Name” 13 The vision of God is, not easier to have by any other endeavour than that of the Name and man engages in this effort only by good fortune, for all the Various disciplines and practices pale into insignificance before the Practice of Name”. 14 It is asserted that, gyan, the Gnosis, the cancellation of the dispersal of mind; dhyan, and all-comprehending intuition, tatva-buddhi, is a fruit of the Practice of the Name 15 and that devotion, bhakti is a corollary of the discipline of Name. It is again said that “disinterested action, in the sense of high altruism or genuine karamayoga is a natural propensity of the man in whom the discipline of the Name is ripened.” 16 “The Mastery of mind, the acme of Purity, and all-encompassing Consciousness, are results of the programmed remembrance of God, the Name” 17
It is clear, therefore, that Sikhism teaches a religious discipline which is in essence a practice which includes the technique of bhakti, the supreme training of the emotions in the service of one supreme End, and a socio-politically active life, motivated not by the little ego of the individual but by an individual self which is yoked to the universal Self.
The technique of yoga has aroused a great deal of interest in the West during the recent years, but mostly as a technique for achieving mental rest and physical health, though this is not the true purpose of the science of Yoga. The concept of yoga, though not the term, is as old as the Rigveda itself. That the Vedic material is complex is recognised in the Nirukta; the science of analysis of the Veda, itself which takes account of several methods of its exegesis. In recent times, particularly by Western scholars of Archeology, it has been suggested that Vedic material is primarily historical events, transmuted into myth. It is also said that it consists of poetic exordia to the Brahmanic ritual. There is a theory, recently revived by Sri Aurovindo Ghose that the Veda is a vast piece of symbolism representing the passions of the soul and its striving for highest spiritual realms, a concept which he himself has adopted as the proto-type of his great poem, the Savitri. Bergaigne suggested the theory that all mythological portrayals in the Veda are variants of the sacred fire and the sacrificial liquor, the soma. 18Whatever may be said about this as a general, theory of interpretation of the Vedas, it has the merit of suggesting a method which appears to be plausible, for, obscure Vedic texts assume some kind of coherence in general if in them we seek an attempt at portraying correspondence between the world of men, the performers of the yajna, and the immaterial, ethereal World of the gods, in short; the microcosm and the macrocosm. The primary function of the rishis, the revealers and preservers of the Veda, was to ensure the ordered functioning of the mundane world, and of the religious ritual, by reproducing the succession of cosmic events, in their ritual and in the imagery which that ritual embodies, and this is the true meaning that the Vedic ritual signifies. The term rta, the basic concept of Vedic imagery, is a designation of the cosmic order which sustains the human order, the social ethics and the social coherence. Terms such as, dharmnan, kratu, have a two-fold significance according to whether they refer to men or the gods, to the plane of the adhyatmam or the adhidavaitam, as the Upanisads put it. Thus understood the Veda portrays the cosmic magical synthesis, symbolically expressed. The cosmic order is conceived as a vast yajna, the prototype of the yajna which the man must perform so as to ensure the integration of the two. Thus, Vedism is already a form of collective, communist yoga, a process of yoking together, of fashioning a recurrent linkage, in which the gods and men both play their parts as witnesses and ·participants. It is this strain of thought which accounts for the yearning of the Indian mind constantly seeking hidden correspondences between things which belong to entirely different conceptual systems. The science and the technique of Yoga, as it has been developed in India since thousands of years; is thus as old as the Hindu thought itself. The term, comes from the. Sanskrit root, yuj which means “to yoke, or join together”. As the specific science of psychological discipline it is designated to signify the union of the individual self with the universal Self, the vision of God or absorption into God. As an art, the technique of Yoga has been used since the beginning of. Hindu historical time, as the archaeological discoveries recently made in Mohenjodaro, where a big water reservoir surrounded by unventilated cubicles, designed to ensure deoxygenation calculated to alter body chemistry facilitative of introversion, has been unearthed, lends support to the speculation that, already in the millennia before the dawn of the Christian era, the art and practice of yoga was well developed and established. Its techniques and teachings have been accumulated through a continuous stream of adepts who have handed them down from generation to generation. Patanjali a Hindu savant of the 4th century B.C., is the author of the text, Yogasutra, which is now the most ancient text on the science of Yoga, though its opening sutra says, “Now a revised text of yoga, which makes it clear that this text is by no means the first of its kind. The philosophical basis of this system of yoga, as expounded by Patanjali is the Samkhya, which teaches that the world order is risen and is an expansion of the highest category .of Intelligence, the Mahat, that :there is no part without an assignable function, a value, a purpose, that there is always an exact selection of means for the production of definite ends, that there is never a random aggregation of events, that there is order, regulation and system. It postulates two ultimate realities, the Spirit and the Matter, the Purusaand the Prakriti, to account for all experience, as logical principles out of which all things evolve. The fundamental tenet of the Samkhya is that creation is impossible, for something cannot come out of nothing, exnihilonihil fit,and that the real movement therefore only consists of modification. This is the central doctrine of the Samkhya, and it is called, sataryavada and its whole system evolves from this as its logical ground. The Samkhya devises this process of cosmic modification into twenty-five categories of Mind and Matter and shows how the whole Phenomena has evolved out of these two sources in accordance with these categories. The philosophy of orthodox Yoga postulates that what is true of this macrocosm is also true of the human microcosm and that, as the individual soul has involuted, through a set process, out of the universal Spirit, it can, by the reverse process, evolute into the universal Spirit. The yoga assumes that the individual soul is the part and parcel of the universal Substance, but so involved in the matter of Time and Space as to have lost all recognition of its true nature. The yoga sets forth a know-how and a technique to bring the individual back to his own and original position, to absolve him from the clutches of Matter and to return him to the essence from which he came, and thus to abstract him from every aspect of Time and Space.
In the Sikh scripture the final goal referred to in this philosophic thesis, is indicated by imagery: “a return to the original home”, by the human soul. 19
Since Sikhism abolishes adamantine duality of mind and matter, it by implication, refuses to base the philosophy of its discipline of the Name, on the categories of the Samkhya. The Sikh doctrine of the Name does not assume the cosmological theory as set forth in the Samkhya system but it does assert that the basic sickness of the human soul arises out of its individuation, its fissiparous involution away from the universal Spirit, and that its cure and restoration of health lies in a process of disciplined progress towards its primal source, which is God. 20 For this it recommends a psychological technique, the basic ingredient of which is the repetition of the ‘Name of God’, accompanied by a constant and unceasing effort to empty the individual mind of all its content, conscious as well as sub-conscious. 21 Since Sikhism recommends that religion must be lived and practised in the socio-political context, the Sikh practice of the yoga of the Name may be pursued, and even must be pursued throughout, while engaged in earning honest livelihood. The complicated technique of classical yoga as laid down in the text of Patanjli and the philosophical concepts by which it is validated, they both go together, and the earning of a livelihood and the practice of the classical yoga cannot go together. In Sikhism this predicament has been removed by laying down a technique which is at once practicable and efficacious. This practice of the Name is mechanical to start with, but has its adjuncts, without which it cannot succeed and fructify. The first adjunct is strictly ethical life. The Sikh scripture constantly stresses that unless a man leads an unstained ethical life he cannot come nigh unto God, although Sikhism does not confuse or equate the ethical commandment and value with the religious experience as such. A Sikh, engaged in the discipline of Name, himself must lead a life of the highest ethical purity, in word, thought and deed, and every faltering from this high norm of rectitude constitutes a stumbling block in the progress of his ultimate realisation of God. The ‘ethical life’ of the Namyoga, takes over, modifies and encapsulates the inescapable preliminary of the classical yoga, that is its ‘five restraints’, pancayama. These five ‘restraints’ are (1) ahimsa do not kill, (2) satya, do not lie, (3) asteya, do not steal, (4) bramacharya, sexual abstinence, (5) aparigraha, do not be greedy and grasping.22 These ‘restraints’ are aimed at purifying the individual, superior to the ordinary human being and they are not claimed as generative of any ‘yogic experience’, change of consciousness, but this purity is essential for further spiritual progress of the practitioner. The modified Sikh directive-capsule, so to speak, separates such elements in these ‘restraints’ of classical yoga, as are incapable or difficult of, coordination with a house-holder’s life and his full participation in socio-political activity, necessary imperatives of the Sikh way ,of life. For instance the ‘restraint’ of brahmacarya abstinence from sex-involvement, is dropped and in its place a monogamous, spiritually oriented married life, free from deviation and promiscuity is held out as the true ‘restraint’. 23 The encapsulated ethical conduct, yama, of the Sikh way of life is laid down in the Sikh scripture, in part, as follows:
Let ‘truth’ be the strict norm of all you think and do, so that your pain and anxiety may ·go and all felicity come to you.
Always cognise the near-presence of .God through the Practice of the Name.
Avoid hurt or injury to any sentient being so that peace may come to your mind.
Be humble by helping and serving those afflicted with misery and want so as to achieve God consciousness.
Nanak testifies that verily, God is the exalter of the fallen and the lowly. 24
The Sikh is then bidden to rely upon prayer and the company of holy men to support and sustain him in his life of ethical rectitude. As he progresses in the path of spiritual development, he must deem it as his duty to persuade and help others to tread the same path; through socio-political activity which must be progressively purified of all taints of selfishness. This is the doctrine of, seva, of Sikhism, without which, Sikhism declares, the practice of Name does not fructify.25
It is further laid down in the Sikh scripture that the discipline of Name must be constantly vitalised by bhakti, devotion to God. “Increase your devotion to God in an ever ascending measure so that your mind may be purified”. 26 The word bhakti has the literal meaning of, “well-joined”. The word bhakti occurs in the Svetasvatara, the ancient Hindu text, which Otto Schraeder in his, Der Hinduisms calls, “the gateway to Hinduism”, although the earlier, Panini, in his Grammar also appears to refer to it. 27 (IV. iii. 95-98). It was the bhakti principle which brought about the transition from the neuter, to the personal principle in Hindu religious speculation. Since bhakti is, “joining with” or “participation” in God, it presupposes an object distinct and discrete, dissimilar and distant from the subject. A purely monistic environment, such as the Sikh doctrine, is not a very fertile ground for bhakti. Bhakti, therefore, has always been better adapted· to a. Vaisnavite background wherein a personal God is assumed as taking human and subhuman forms in the phenomenal world. The orthodox Hindu theory of bhakti is that a god without attribute is inaccessible and that, there must be an intercessor. Since Hinduism has no founder or prophet God-incarnate, the ‘Word made flesh’, as the Christians say, this intermediary must be one of these human or sub-human forms of Vishnu, which he has assumed in various Time-cycles of the Creation. This is the basic doctrine of Hindu bhakti, though gradually has acquired many .shades of secondary meanings. Since Sikhism does not countenance, avtarvad, the doctrine of incarnation of gods or God, it uses the term, bhakti, in its pristine sense of canalizing and sublimating the entire emotional energy of the individual to sustain the continuous yearning for a vision of God. 28 This form of bhakti, the Sikh scripture declares, is a necessary adjunct of the discipline of Name.29
The last adjunct of the discipline of Name, the Sikh scripture says, is the intuitive understanding of the philosophical truths which underlie the world of phenomena. This is the True knowledge, the Gnosis, and the Sikh scripture commends that a Sikh must always strive by study, by discussion, by meditation and by every mental effort, to· acquire, an intellectual and intuitive understanding of the philosophic truths.30
This, in short outline, is the Discipline of the Name which Sikhism teaches as the path to the realisation of God, and, broadly speaking, it consists of the three well known paths to liberation recognised in the world-religions, namely, ‘the path of unselfish action,’ ‘the path of devotion’, and ‘the path of knowledge’, all subsumed under and practised as adjuncts to the grand Discipline of the technology of the Namayoga. The modern Hindu thinker, Aurovindo Ghose, in his own way, has tried to expound an almost identical technology under the title of, “Integral Yoga”, though it is definitely something less but expressed in a more sophisticated and pedantic language.
It is, therefore, this Discipline of the Name through which Sikhism seeks not only to ensure the continuous renewal, but a firm conservancy of the fundamental traditions of the great religions of mankind; and, in addition, it thereby seeks to make available to man, new dimensions of consciousness for the purpose of a higher integration of human personality; such as would transform man and his destiny on this earth.
Out of the five paths to liberation, followed by mankind the two, namely, ‘the ritual’ and ‘the maceration’, have not been recommended and approved of by Sikhism for obvious reasons. The ‘ritual’ is basically repetition, aiming at renewal but discouraging and blocking development and growth, change and advancement. Mechanical rituals, where interiorisation is lacking and where mental correspondences are absent or atrophied tend to make zombies of us all.31 The ritual, in its original essence, is magic and its nature and function is different from that of true religion as conceived by Sikhism. Magic seeks to control powers of nature directly through the force of spells and enchantments, techniques and know-hows, while religion recognises existence of spiritual beings external to man and the world and employs persuasive methods of sacrifice and prayer to procure their aid. Magic is coercive and dictatorial in approach while the other is persuasive. Magic depends upon the way in which certain things are said and done for a particular purpose by those who possess the necessary skills and the power to put the supernatural force into effect, while religion is personal and supplicatory. It is for this reason that the path of the ritual and the yajna has been discountenanced in Sikhism. Asceticism and maceration have been likewise disowned as the desirable and direct paths to liberation32, for, these practices necessarily implicate withdrawal from socio-political activity, and Sikhism rejects such a withdrawal in view of its basic doctrines which envisage an ultimate transformation of man and his destiny on this mundane earth as the true goal and fruit of religion.
The Order of the Khalsa, which the Tenth Nanak, Guru Gobind Singh founded, must be viewed in the context of these doctrines of Sikhism as intended to be a Body of men who not only practise the essential spiritual Discipline of Sikhism, and live the life of a true Sikh, but who are also pledged to ensure, by every legitimate means, in which means is included the control of political power, the coming into existence, the prevalence and the preservation of a World Society, vitalised continuously by the afflation of the truths of religion, open, tolerant and catholic sustaining a creative World culture consistent with the spiritual dignity and the spiritual goal of man.
An outline of such a World Society is indicated in the Sikh scripture thus :
“Henceforth, such is the will of God :
No man shall coerce another;
no man shall exploit another.
Every one, each individual, has the inalienable birth-right to seek and pursue happiness and self-fulfillment.
Love and persuasion is the only Law of social coherence.” 33
1. “sargun ap nirgun bhi ohi” -(Sukhamani. V.)
2. “kai janam pankhi sarap hoio, kai janam haivar brikh Joio, mil Jagdis Milan ki baria,” (Gauri V).
3. oe purakhprani dhannajan hai upadas karhi paropkaria -Var. Gauri IV.
Brahmagyani paropkar omaha. — Sukhmani. V.
4. “Jau bujhia tau sab kichhu mul, Nanak, so sukham soi asthul.” — ibid.
5.“adi sac, jugadi sac, hai bhi sac, Nanak hosi bhi sac.”
6. “kal karanta abhi kar. — Sloka, Kabir.
“agahan ku trangh pichha pher na mohadara, sijh aveha var.” —Var Maru. V.
7. “balihari gur apne... jinimanas te devte kie.” — Asa di var.
8. Brahmagiani paropkar umaha — Sukhmani. V.
9.“kalu aio re — nam bovao, an rut nahi re mat bharqm bhulu.” — Asa. I..
10.“Jia re ola Nam ka, avar jo karan karavano tini main bhau hai jam ka.
11. Guru Nanak ke ghar keval nam hai.
12. Nanak nam chadhadi kala
13. bhar-iai mat papa ke sang, oha dhopai navai Ice rang — Japu
14.nami tull kicchu avar na hoi, Nanak gurmukh namu pavai janu koi — Sukhmani.
15.prabhu ke simran gian, dhian tatt budh. — Sukhmani
16.prabh kau simarahi se paropkari — Sukhmnai
17. so surta, so baisno, so giani, jini bhajia bhagvant. — Gauri Thtti
18. A. Bergaigne, La Religion Vedique.
19. jiji gharu pavao vasa.
20. nijigharu mahil pavaho sukhu sahije bahur na hoego phera, — Gauri V.
21. ram ram sabhko kahai, kahiai ram na hoe,
gurprasadi ramu mani vasai tan phalu pavai koe.— Gauri.
22. Patanjali, Yogasutra, II. 30.
23.eka nari jati hoe par-nari dhi bhain vookhani — Bhai Gurdas
par nori ki saij bhul supne hu na jaio. — Baccittanatak.
24. Guru Granth; p. 322
25. so sevak seva kare jisnau hucam manaisi, hukmi maniai hovai parvanu ta khasmai ka mahil paisi. — Var. Asa.
26,bhakti karo prabhu ki nitnit, nirmal hoi tumharo cit. — Sukhmani
27.Ashtadhyayi, IV, iii, 95-98.
28.jisiantar prit lagae so mukta,... gur kai sabad sada hari dhiaie eha bhagati hari bhavania—Majh
29. “guru man maria kar sanjog, ahinis ravai bhagatyog.”
30.mall karhala vadbhagia tu gian ratan samhal. — Gauri
gian anjan gur dia agian andher binas — Sukhmani
31. Wake up early in the morning, Hear the ding-dong ring. Go walking to the table, See the same damn thing.
32. “Yajna, hom, punn, tap, puja, dehi dukhi nit dukhu sahai, ramanam bin mukt na pavas mukt nam gurmukh lahai. — Bhairav
33. hun hukam hoa meharvan da,
pai koi no kisai rinjan do,
sab sukhali vutthian
hoa halemi raj jio.