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  Gur Panth Parkash
Gur Panth Parkash
by Rattan Singh Bhangoo
Translated by
Prof Kulwant Singh






In this paper, “Kinds of Knowledge and Place of Reason in Sri Guru Granth Sahib”, we shall see what is the view of knowledge and its kinds according to Sri Guru Granth Sahib. We shall also refer to the place of reason in this context. First of all the general notion of knowledge will be analysed. It appears that the Sikh Gurus have outlined a triadic concept of hearing (suniai), reflection (marme), and contemplation (ek dhyan) to represent the various kinds of knowledge. These concepts are comparable to somewhat similar view in the upanishads.

In their general discourse about the kinds of knowledge, the Sikh Gurus have made an interesting use of the idea of divine reason (hukam). Often it is used in a sense in which the notion of the uniformity of Nature is cited as formal ground of induction. Along with the idea of the Word (shabad) as testimony, the concept of truth (sach) has also been discussed. So the paper has been divided into two parts. In the first part the general notion of knowledge and the concepts of hearing, reflection and contemplation will be analysed and in the second part we shall discuss the idea of divine reason (hukam), the Word (shabad) as testimony, and the concept of truth (sach) Knowledge (gian) : In Sri Guru Granth Sahib, the word gian has been used for the word knowledge in English language. It is the Punjabi version of the Sanskrit word Jnana which is a noun. The root of the word Jnana is vid originally identical with vidanta. The meaning of the word vid is to find, discover, obtain, acquire. The word Jnana means knowing, becoming acquainted with, knowledge, especially the higher knowledge derived from meditation on the universal spirit.1 It is the level of consciousness, a state of knowing. According to a dictionary of philosophy, knowledge means “relations known and apprehended truth”2 To know means to be conscious of something. Knowledge means consciousness.

According to Advaita Vedanta, “Knowledge is manifest (svatah prakasa). It requires no other knowledge to know it. Knowledge neither apprehends itself, nor is apprehended by another knowledge. Like sunlight it shines of itself and does not require any other light for its manifestation while it makes known other things”.3

The very first reference made to knowledge is in Japuji where it has been used in the sense of perceptual as well as rational knowledge. It is held that the number of devotees is countless. It is perceptual knowledge. It is further held that the reflection on the qualities of the higher Reality leads to knowledge. It is rational knowledge. This rational knowledge. leads man on the path of devotion to the higher Reality. 4 It is further mentioned in Japuji that to apprehend the higher Truth, perceptual knowledge is most important, being the first step towards knowing. It has been termed as the region of knowledge (gian khand). 5 In this region knowing is concerned with the three aspects of perceptual knowledge. The first aspect is related with the perceptual and empirical knowledge of the physical world i.e. the seeker acquires the knowledge of many kinds of winds, waters, fires and heat. The second aspect of perceptual knowledge described in this stanza is the knowledge of society and the principles of social relations, of the many religious practices of the people, of their myths and symbols. The third aspect is concerned with the cultural traditions of the people, the literary and historical aspect of man, and their efforts and achievements in the field of learning and wisdom. Thus, the field of perceptual knowledge is very wide. It expands the consciousness of the seeker in vast directions. it is the first and necessary step for a seeker to cover all the fields of knowledge.

Sri Guru Nanak Dev does not reject the empirical knowlege totally as some rationalists might have done, nor does he consider the empirical knowledge as the only valid knowledge as some empiricists have stressed. He considers perceptual knowledge as the first, and often complementary step towards rational knowledge. Every kind of knowlege has got its own area of performance.

Both should be combined in such a way that they supplement each other to achieve the still higher knowledge which is called intuitive. The data whicl1 we get through sense-perception would be irrelevant and disjointed unless it is unified and integrated by the relations known through reflection and reason.

The third kind of knowledge which the Guru has stressed along with perceptual and rational knowledge is intuitive knowledge. The knowledge which)s attained by a super-rational and super-sensuous faculty is called intuitive knowledge. It is mostly related with mysticism. The knowledge attained through such a faculty is considered related with higher truths of Reality which are above relations, while rational knowledge is knowledge about relations. Intuition has been understood very differently by many epistemologists. At one place, intuition has been defined as, “the direct and immediate apprehension by a knowing subject of itself, of its conscious states, of other minds, of an external world, of universals, of values, or of rational truths”.6

According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji, God has created man with his five sense-organs and subtle organs. Man has the faculty to know. When man reflects, and through reflection attains the rational knowledge, he becomes fearless, because knowledge destroys fear. For the knowledge gained through reflection and contemplation, the word’ gian-anjan’ has been used by the Gurus, which refers to a process of knowledge. 7 And this process is related to reason. The seeker can have the knowledge of the secrets of Reality, if he keeps his mind open and receptive. His mental awareness is related to the higher Reality. According to Sri Guru Nanak Dev, knowledge8 (gian) is something which is gained and the gaining or achieving of knowledge is related with perceptual and rational knowledge. Guru Nanak Dev has also used the word “gian dhian’ or’ gian vichar’ for rational knowledge. Then knowledge (gian) is seen as sojhi hoe, which refers to intuition. Intuitive knowledge is the highest knowledge through which man is united with the higher truth. When man attains all the three kinds of knowledge, his consciousness expands and he knows the whole cosmos.

According to Guru Nanak Dev, intuitive knowledge is the highest knowledge which he calls a jewel (‘ gian ratan,). 9 It comes to the mind with the Grace of God. Through intuitive knowledge man attains the highest truth of life and the evil nature of man is destroyed. He becomes truthful. According to the Guru10 knowledge is the emancipator of man. It leads to liberation, while Ignorance becomes the cause of man’s bondage. Without intuitive knowledge, whatever man says or discusses is all vain and foolish, for it creates confusion.

The Guru has expressed the relation and interdependence of each kind of knowledge.11 These do not oppose each other, but having their own areas of operation, they supplement each other. Without the help of reason, perception is not of much use, and reason does not become fruitful unless man intuites the essence of truth. When a mind is illumined by knowledge, it dispels the darkness of ignorance, as when a lamp is lit, its light dispels the darkness. So when man gains scriptural knowledge through reading and listening, his mind is rid of evil tendeny, because ignorance gives rise to all wrongs and through scriptural knowledge ignorance vanishes. But, mere reading or listening of scriptures is just a routine matter, if it is without reflection. At the same time, mere reasoning or discoursing does not lead anywhere, if one does not intuite the essence of that knowledge. So perceptual knowledge, rational knowledge and intuitive knowledge supplement each other.

Sri Guru Amardas 12 has referred to rational knowledge as the awakening of mind and ignorance as slumber. According to the Guru, rational knowledge is attained through reflection on virtues (gun-vichar). Through this, man’s consciousness expands, and once this is achieved, he never loses the received knowledge. Then he has rational knowledge related with intuition which is called comprehension (bujhna). The intuitive knowledge is known through the Guru. This intuitive truth is known only to saints. Sri Guru Amardas has also used the word’ div drishti’ (celestial power) 13 for intuitive knowledge which dispels illusion.

From the above discussion it follows that the three kinds of knowledge are accepted and considered valid in Sri Guru Granth Sahib. They are: perceptual knowledge which is expressed through the words such as, “dekhia or vekhia, sunia, jania”, etc. The perceptual knowledge is related with the universe, man, or the whole creation. Sensory knowledge is the first step towards the knowing of Truth. But sensory knowledge is not the only knowledge. There are truths which are above or beyond perceptual knowledge. These truths are known through rational knowledge. These truths are related with man’s culture, religion, and man’s relation with man, society, etc. Reason provides us with relational knowledge. But still there is a Reality which is above relations, the realisation of which is the ultimate goal of man’s existence. Rational knowledge provides the door to that knowledge but it cannot be apprehended through reason. That knowledge which is related with man’s spiritual craving is intuitive knowledge. It is realized knowledge. Every kind of knowledge has its own sphere. One kind of knowledge does not interfere with the sphere of another. Rather they supplement one another.

The three aspects of knowledge mentioned above have been elaborated by Guru Nanak in the Japuji as hearing (Suniai), reflection (manne) and contemplation (ek dhyan). Hearing (suniai) is related to perceptual knowledge, reflection (manne) is concerned with rational knowledge, and contemplation (dhyan) is related to intuitive knowledge.

Hearing (Suniai) : Sri Guru Nanak Dev dealt in detail with the concept of hearing (sunial). In the Japuji four stanzas have been devoted to this concept. In Sri Guru Granth Sahib, hearing (suniai) is related with the knowledge acquired through sensory organs, ears as well as the hearing of the Word(shabad). Though the hearing of the Word (shabad) involves the sansory organ, ear, but it is concerned with the spiritual perspective. It does not end’ with physical hearing, but this should continue till the spiritual transformation of the human personality takes place. In this context, the word (shabad) is to be sung along with hearing. 14 It is not mere drumming into the ear of a sound which does not reach ,the heart. It creates an inner atmosphere which is termed as “man rakhiai bhao” i.e. to keep the fear of God in mind. Here pain vanishes automatically, and happiness makes the heart its permanent abode. This leads to awakening of the mind.

Sri Guru Nanak Dev introduces the world of knowledge step by, step. To know God the first step is to know His creation and this is made possible through hearing which is the first stage of knowledge. When we analyse relevant stanza of the ]apuji, we come to know that by hearing we acquire the knowledge about: “(i) the lives of the realized persons and (ii) the various aspects of the world,” as observed by a scholar. 15 The second stanza provides16 to the seeker knowledge about beings of higher consciousness and the secrets of higher consciousness. In the third stanza, 17 the seeker acquires knowledge about the higher ethical principles such as truthfulness, moral qualities, contentment, punfication and the virtues. It finally leads to the Source of All. In the fourth stanza18 the seeker acquires knowledge of the application of wisdom by those who after acquiring knowledge guide others on the right path.

Reflection (Manne) : After the first stage of knowledge, hearing follows the second stage of knowledge, namely, reflection (manne). As discussed by a learned scholar, Sri Guru Nanak Dev considers it necessary that the seeker should not only acquire knowledge by hearing (suniai) from the testimony of others, but he must reflect on what he ‘hears'.19

In the first stanza about reflection20 (manne) the Guru warns the seeker that the process of reflection cannot be fully described, and whosoever makes such a claim would at the end realize its futility. This failure to describe the process of reflection (manne), arises from the fact that the possibilities involved in reflection are so vast and infinite. In the second stanza it is stated that through reflection the consciousness of the mind and the intellect are fashioned and sharpened. 21

In the third stanza22 Sri Guru Nanak Dev holds that reflection (manne) removes all the hindrances from the path of the seeker. 23 A man of reason or reflection receives great honour and distinction. Reason clears his mind of waywardness and hesitation. He now walks on a straight, broad and clear path.

In the fourth and the last stanza24 devoted to reflection, it is stated that the man of reflection realizes the ultimate aim of human life. According to the Guru, such a seeker of truth gets transformed and commits himself to the spiritual transformation of the people.

Contemplation Whyan) : The third stage of knowledge described by the Guru is called contemplation (dhyan). This has been referred by a scholar as single-minded contemplation. 25 As mentioned above, contemplation (dhyan) is the highest stage in the process of knowledge and results in gaining the purest knowledge. Contemplation, in the mystical sense, is knowledge consisting in the partial or complete link of the knower with the object of knowledge, with the consequent loss of one’s individuality. In Japuji, when the seeker achieves the third stage of knowledege i.e. contemplation (dhyan), he is known as the elect (panch). 26 This stage of knowledge, “indicates both hearing and reflection. We find that the term contemplation (dhyan) occurs even while the Guru discusses the various aspects of knowledge by hearing. The need to synthesize knowledge is, thus,stressed by Sri Guru Nanak Dev through this third aspect of knowledge. The synthesis, thus, is a constituent of the knowledge itself.” 27
The Guru28 has given a beautiful simile to make it clear that knowledge ripens through contemplation. One gets to the purest form of Truth in contemplation. This comes through His grace. Here, the Dharma has been compared to a flower and knowledge is its fruit which ripens with contemplation. We shall now proceed to the second part of this paper where we shall analyse the concept of divine Reason (hukam) as the rational substratum of the universe. The uniformity of nature and the causal law may be seen as an important aspect of Reality. We shall discuss the concepts of the word (shabad), and the Truth (sach).

Divine Reason (Hukam): Hukam is an Arabic word, and, as a noun, is used for ‘order’. According to F. Staingrass its meaning is “exercising authority, commanding, command, dominion, control, direction, influence, efficiency; and article of faith; proposition, relation, wisdom and knowledge”. 29 It has been used in different grammatical forms in the Sri Guru Granth Sahib as ‘hukamao, hukmavai, hukmi, hukmu, hukme.. hukmai and hukmao. But the concept remains the same in all these usages. The hukam seems to be used for the natural system or the coherent whole, which is perceived as an orderly cosmos. It has been used in the Qu’ran, but the sense in which it has been used as a concept in Sikhism, is not taken as such from Islam.

According to Sri Guru Granth Sahib, Hukam appears to be used for the divine, or the higher order, reason. It leads us to the knowledge of causal relationship in nature. There is orderliness in nature. Things are very cordially related. To understand this relatedness and coherence is to understand divine reason (hukam).

According to Avtar Singh, “hukam as universal will (or divine will) can be understood to operate in two ways. It may be taken to operate as external to self as “Thou shalt do this. . .” as laid down in a series of commandments in scriptures. But in another and proper sense, in Sikhism, this Hukam or will may be understood to operate as internal to self”.30

The word divine reason seems the most proper word for Hukam because it is not like authoritarian external order. It is within man. It is Divine Will which includes knowledge and that knowledge is reached through intiution. So it may be called Divine Reason.

Sri Guru Nanak Dev has referred to divine reason (hukam) as the potent factor for the removal of ignorance and falsehood. 31 Ignorance, here, is described as ‘the wall of falsehood’ (kurai pali). In answer to a question posed by Sn Guru Nanak Dev as to how this wall of falsehood can be demolished, he himself later replies that it can be done, the falsehood and ignorance can be removed through divine reason (hukam). Sri Guru Nanak Dev, has, in the above hymn, established a polarity of divine reason (hukam) with ignorance. The divine reason (hukam) has, thus, clearly a cognitive element. Divine reason, Hukam, is neither blind nor devoid of cosmic cognitive element. It explains the precise and accurate nature of it (hukam). It also hints at its rational nature. When this divine reason (hukam) is said to be written ‘within’ (likhia nali) the self, it is also seen as the principle of illumination and knowledge.

It has been emphasized by the Gurus that knowledpe is realized by knowing the rational nature of the universe. 32 The seeker is, time and again, reminded that the universe operates according to certain laws. The mathematical accuracy with which the events take place in nature display a rational character. Here reason and the causal accuracy appear to suggest that mathematics is the grammer of nature. The knowledge, or the empirical version of it in sciences, discover the ever on-going causal relation in various elements in the cosmos. The realization of knowledge beginning with awareness of the divine reason (hukam), 33 thus, appears to be the first step of wonder necessary for any sustained journey to the deeper and meaningful knowledge. It beacons the self to perceive the orderliness and rational nature of the cosmos, and it also sustains it through the levels of higher knowledge. It, thus, perceives of ‘what is’ to ‘why is’. The concept of hukam is, therefore, intimately connected with the idea of reason.

The functioning of this divine reason is not limited to the physical sphere only. It also extends to the moral aspect of this universe in the form of the law of karma. Nothing is happening outside the divine reason (hukam). The relatedness of divine reason (hukam) and law of karma is called in Sri Guru Granth Sahib ‘hukam sanjogi’. Divine reason (Hukam) is harmony and coherence; and to live in hukam is to live in harmony which leads to the perception of highest truth. Disharmony leads to animal living in the cycle of birth and death. The first Guru holds34 that the true service to God is to be content in His Name and this is to realize divine reason (hukam). Such a person who realizes divine reason (hukam) within his self also realizes the Supreme self. Such persons are relieved of doubt and separation. Man comes into this world in accordance with his deeds under the system of divine reason, (hukam), so he should live in divine reason (hukam). In Sikhism, it is held that to know God, to apprehend the Truth, man should have an insight into this divine reason (hukam). To know divine reason (hukam) and to follow divine reason (hukam), is the pre-condition to the vision of God (the Hukami). The conception of divine reason (hukam) does not shift from the physical to the moral sphere. The physical universe as well as the moral order are working together under divine reason (hukam). Nothing is out of it. Owing to this, the world is not a chaos, nor the blind fury of chance and elements. It is an ordered whole, working for a harmonious purpose.

Uniformity of Nature: As mentioned earlier, Sri Guru Nanak Dev has interpreted the principle of the uniformity of nature through the concept of divine reason (hukam). The right understanding of divine reason (hukam) 35 reveals an orderliness in nature which is knowable. If one penetrates deep into it, one can apprehend that the universe, its living beings, their excellences, miseries, and happinesses all come into existence according to the uniform law of nature which is based on divine reason (hukam). This has been further explained by the concept of nature (qudrat), according to which all seemingly different appearances are produced by the same cause which has been explained as ‘teri qudrat’. It has been interpreted by some scholars as ‘His Power’ . 36 Through this divine reason (hukam) everything in nature is working in a rational pattern. The laws of nature are rational. They are not fortuitous. Nothing is accidental or by chance. 37 Chance represents our lack of understanding the order. There is causal uniformity which has been expressed through the concepts of divine reason (hukam) and nature (qudrat). The Word (Shabad): The concept of hearing (suniai), reflection manne) and contemplation (dhyan) has two aspects. In one aspect It is related with the hearing. reflection and contemplation of perceptual knowledge. The second aspect of it is related with the hearing, reflection and contemplation of the Word (shabad). Now, we shall discuss the meaning of the Word (shabad} in Sikhism.
The Guru have used the Word (shabad) in many different meanings in different contexts. One meaning among them can be said to be ‘logos’, or Scripture, and in the sense of testimony (pramana), a source of knowledge. The Word (shabad) has been used in Sri Guru Granth Sahib in different grammatical forms as shabad, shabadah, shabadi, shabadu, shabada, shabadai and shabado. But these different forms do not make any conceptual difference.

The Word (Shabad) is the knowledge which instructs man for truthful living. Through the Word (shabad) man gets rid of all types of ignorance which are the cause of his separation from ultimate Truth. Through the Word (shabad) his mind and body both are brightened. According to the Gurus, the Word (shabad) helps the seeker in gaining knowledge in contemplation and in following the way of religion. 38 The Word (shabad) has also been viewed as the guiding force. When the Word (shabad) becomes the guiding force for man it becomes Guru. 39 Through shabad man’s action and will are refined. They become as action and will of Guru, they become connated with Guru’s will. The Word (shabad) is the medium to understand the higher truths as divine reason (hukam).40

The Word (shabad) 41 as the expression of Reality is operative in every body. Reality is the true Word. This truth is realized through God’s Grace, when He bestows Grace, man is attuned to truth which is the Word (shabad). In Sikhism, the Word (shabad) is the Guru and the Guru is the Word (shabad). Man is to learn the spiritual path from the Guru, who reveals Word (shabad) in the form of Gurbani which eventually became the Guru.

So in Sikhism, the Word (shabad) has been used in more than one sense. The Word (shabad) is the expression of the Reality. It is within man as immanent Reality. The Word (shabad) is the means of knowledge of the highest Truth, the Truth is attained through reflection and contemplation on the Word (shabad). The intuitive experience of Reality is expressed in the Word (shabad). So the Word (shabad) is the testimony. Again, ignorance and falsehood are removed through reflection and contemplation on the Word (shabad), which is to be received from the Guru. In Sikhism, the Word (shabad) is Guru.

Truth (Sach) : As discussed above the Word (shabad) is the only means of the knowledge of the highest Reality, the Truth. Now, we shall discuss the concept of Truth (sach). Sach is the Punjabi form of the Sanskrit word sat, which is a noun and its root in the Sanskrit language is asi. The meanings which the word imflies are: being, existing, occurring, happening, being present, etc.42 Its adjective is satya. 43 In Hindu Dharam Kosh, satya has been held as that which remains the same in the three divisions of time that is past, present and future. 44 In Sri Guru Granth Sahib both the forms i.e. sach as well as sat have been used.

In Sri Guru Granth Sahib truth (sach) has been used with three different meanings. Firstly, it is an attribute of Reality. Secondly, it is a quality of a proposition which has got the capacity for guiding the conduct. Thirdly, truth (sach) has been referred to as a moral virtue. So it is concerned with the three areas: ontological - with the nature of Reality, epistemological - as a theory of truth or knowledge, and ethical - as a moral virtue. Here we are mainly concerned with the ‘Truth’, in the meaning of Being, the Reality, though we shall also refer to the other two aspects of truth (sach). Interpreting sati nam in Mulmantra, it is held that the word (sati) here implies the non-dualsati. It is above sat-asat or sach-jhuth dualism,and implies the meaning of “a conscious being whose form is truth.” 45

Truth (sach) has also been described as having a capacity to guide the conduct of the seeker, According to Sri Guru Nanak Dev, truth (sach) is the panacea for the ills which afflict man. It washes the mind clean of all sins. 46 Truth (sach) as a moral virtue is realized when the seeker disciplines the baser interests and cultivates the angelic aspect of his personality. 47

The word of the Guru (Gurvak) helps in realizing the Truth. It is a guide, the Pure, which illumines the heart and mind with its Light. Through its light the Reality is shown to man.448 Such a man is termed as sacha, or sachiara, the True One, who is imbued with the highest Truth, the Ultimate Reality. In him,God’s light becomes manifest which leads to the above mentioned results. 49

From our discussion about truth (sach) and its attainment, we can say that to be a true one (sachiar) means to realize the unity of the self with the Truth (sach) or the Absolute. The seeker is to attain this unity not only through reflection, contemplation and intuition alone, but through his actions also. This combination is essential.

He has to discipline his life in the way of the Gurus. This realisation or knowledge is not static, it is dynamic. The ideal of Truth, according to Sikhism, cannot be attained in seclusion. It is to be attained through participation in social life. Seclusion leads to escapism from the social responsibililties. But in Sikhism, the true one (sachiara) becomes dynamic and more conscious of his social responsibilities. He utilizes his knowledge for the improvement of the human society. 50

According to Sri Guru Granth Sahib all creation and its expansion done by the Reality is true. The Creator and the creation both are True. 51 It Implies that all is real. There is no possibility of wrong and falsehood or evil in the Divine plan. Falsehood or evil exists only from the point of view of finite creatures. But they also have the potentialities of transcending these weaknesses and attain Truth.

The Gurus consider ego (haumai) and egoistic vision (maya) to be the wall of falsehood that obstructs man from understanding the Truth. They give rise to many passions, like greed (lobh), infatuation (moh), enmity (vair) and discrepancy (virodh),etc. which separate man from the Reality. Ego (haumai) has been considered a basic malady, but the remedy is also there. when man recognises the negative role of the ego (haumai) within him, he can remove it, with the Grace of God. 52 When it is removed, man has the knowledge of Reality and the person becomes the conscious instrument of Reality.

To conclude our discussion, we can say that the Sikh Gurus have used deductive reasoning to demonstrate the theoretical as well as the practical aspects of reason. Our study of the material and the formal grounds of induction, has shown that the Gurus have explained the enduring foundations of human knowledge. The divine is not a postulate for denying the rational knowledge. On the contrary, it is the assurance of a higher order of coherence as the ground of our knowledge. It reinforces and sustains our effort for greater and greater, as well as deeper and deeper, knowledge and truer understanding and activity.



1 Monier Monicr Williams,A Sanskrit English Dictionary, (Delhi, Moti Lal Banarsi Das, reprinted 1981) ‘Jnana’, p. 426
2 Dagobert, D. Runes, Dictionary of Philosophy, (Bombay: Jaico-Publishing House, 1957) ‘knowledge
3 Swami Satprakashananda, Methods of Knowledge (London: George Alien an Unwin Ltd. 1965), p.110

4 Sri Guru Granth Sahib, M.1, pA. asankh jap asankh bhau asankh puja asankh tap tau

5 Ibid., M.1, p.7. dharam khand ka eho dharam gian khand ka akhahu karam

6 Dagobert, D. Runes, op.cit., ‘Intuition’
7 Sri Guru Granth Sahib, M.1, p. 57. gian anjanu bhaibhanjna dekhu niranjan bhae guptu pargat sabh janiai je manu rakhai thae

8 Sri Guru Granth Sahib, M.1, p.60. sacha nehu na tutai je satguru bhetai soi gian padarathu paiai tribhavan sojhi hoi

9 Ibid., M.1, p.354. jan tudhu bhavai ta durmati jae gian ratanu mani vasai ae

10 Ibid., M.1, p.466. haumai bujhai ta daru sujhai gian vihuna kathi kathi lujhai

11 Ibid., M.1, p.791. Ugavai suru na japai chandu jah gian pargasu agianu mitantu
beid pathu sansar ki kar parhi parhi pandit karahi bichar binu bujhe sabh hoe khuar

12 Ibid., M.3, p.160. manmukh suta maya mohi piari gurmukhi jage gun gian bichari
se jan jage jin nam piari, sahaje jagai savai na koi pure gur te bujhai janu koi

13 Ibid., M.3' p.1016. Dib drisati jagai bharamu chukae gurparasadi param padu pae
so jogi ihu jugati pachhanai gur kai sabadi bichari jio

14 Ibid., M.1, p.2. gaviai suniai mani rakhiai bhau dukhu parhari sukhu ghari lai jae

15 Avtar Singh, Ethics of the Sikhs, (Patiala, Punjabi University, 1970)

16 Sri Guru Granth Sahib, M.1, p.2. suniai isaru brahma indu suniai mukhi salahanu mundu.

17 Ibid., M.1, p.3. suniai satu santokhu gianu

18 Ibid., M.1, p.8. suniai sara guna ke gah suniai sekh pir patisah

19 Avtar Singh, op.cit., p:88.

20 Sri Guru Granth Sahib, p.3. manne ki gati kahi na jae Je ko kahai pichhai pachhutae

21 Ibid., p.3. mannai surati hovai mani budhi mannai sagal bhavan ki sudhi

22 Ibid., p.3. mannai maragi thak na pae mannai pati siu pargatu jae

23 Avtar Singh, op.cit., p.90

24 Sri Guru Granth Sahib, p.3. mannai pavahi mokhu duara mannai parvarai sadharu

25 Avtar Singh, op.cil., p.91.

26 Sri Guru Granth Sahib, p.3. panch parvan panch pardhanu, panchanka gur eku dhian.

27 Avtar Singh, op.cit., p.91.

28 Sri Guru Granth Sahib, p.147. nanak guru santokhu rukhu dharamu phulu phalu gian ras rasia haria sada pakai karami dhian

29 Staingrass, F., A Comprehensive Persian English Dictionary (New Delhi: Oriental
Books reprint corporation, 54 Rani Jhansi Road, first edition, 1973), p.426.

30 Avtar Singh, op.cit., pp.30-31.

31 Sri Guru Granth Sahib, M.l, p.1. Kiv sachiara hoviai kiv kurhai tutai pali hukami rajai chalna nanak likhia nali

32 ibid., p.l, p.7. 33 Ibid., M.l, p.1. hukami hovani akar hukamu na kahia jai hukami hovani jia hukami milai vadiai

34 Sri Guru Granth Sahib, p.421 hukami rajai jo chalai so pavai khajanai hukami snjogi aia chalu sada rajai

35 Sri Guru Granth Sahib, M.I, p.1. hukami hovani akar hukami na kahya jae

36 Gopal Singh Dardi, translator, Sri Guru Granth Sahib (Chandigarh: World University Press, 1978), p.457.

37 Sri Guru Granth Sahib, M.l, p.464.
qudrati disai qudrati suniai qudrati bhau sukh saru
nanak hukamai andari vekhai vartai tako taku

38 Ibid., p.223.
eku sabad ik bhikhia mangai
gianu dhianu jugati sachu jagai

39 Ibid., p.225.
durmat agani jagat parjarai
so ubrai gur sabadu bicharai

40 Ibid., M.1, p.940.
hukame avai hukame javai hukame rahai samaei
pure gur te sachu kmavai gati miti sabade paei

41 Ibid., M.l, p.1275.
chahudisi hukamu varatai prabhu tera chahudisi name pataln
sab mahi sabadu varatai parabhu sacha karami milai baialn

42 M.M. Williams, op.cit., ‘asi’,p.1134.

43 Shiv Ram Apte, ‘satya’, p.1063.

44 Rajbali Pandey, op.cit., p.650.

45 Bhai Vir Singh, Santhya Sri Guru Granth Sahib,
Vol. 1 (Amritsar: Khalsa Samachar, Hall Bazar, Nov.,1961), p.12.

46 Sri Guru Granth Sahib, M.l, p.468.
sachu ta paru janiai ja ridai sacha hoe
sachu sabhna hoe daru papu kadhai dhoe

47 Ibid., M.1, p. 463.
Nanak sachu dhiyaini sachu

48 Ibid., M.1, p. 463.
Nanak sachu dhiyaini sachu

49 Ibid.,M.l,p.1112.
sachu gharu khoji lahe...
nanak sacha sachai racha gurmukhi tariai tari

50 Ibid., M.5, pp.272-73.
brahamugiani parupkar oumaha

51 Ibid., M.5, pp.1073-74.
sacha takhatu sachi patisahi
sachi kudarti sachi bani sachu sahib sukhu kija he

52 Ibid., M.2, p.466.
Haumai thiragh rogu hai tharu bhi esu mahi



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