Rolling Back Afghans
Dr Kirpal Singh
Maharaja Ranjit Singh & Afghans
As has been mentioned there established twelve Misls of Sikhs in Punjab during the last decades of eighteenth century. Maharaja Ranjit Singh belonged to Shukarchakia misl which was founded by his grandfather Charat Singh, who took leading part in Wada Ghallughara. Maharaja Ranjit Singh was able to unite all misls in the Trans-Satluj area.
Since time immemorial there had been innumerable invasions form the northwestern side. This ever gushing tide of invasions could not be stopped by any Indian. This was reserved for Maharaja Ranjit Singh not only to stop this for ever but also to subjugate Afghans who had been invading India for the last eight hundred years. On the eve of rise of Maharaja Ranjit Singh there were several Afghan principalities. Adjacent to Lahore was that of Kasur and Multan held by Keshgi Sadozai Afghans. Similarly, there were number of Afghan principalities like Dera Ghazi khan, Attock, Derajat, Peshawar, Kohat, Tonk, Bannu etc. The Afghans were considered great warriors and it was not easy to conquer their territory especially when they considered Sikhs infidels (kafirs).
Occupation of Attock
The monarchy in Afghanistan sank to anarchy. Zaman Shah was blinded and deposed and subsequently Shah Shuja was deposed and he fled towards Kashmir. Later on Shah Mohammad was also removed and all political powers were wrested by the Barakzai brothers. They were eighteen brothers and the eldest was Fateh Khan met Maharaja Ranjit Singh and they decided to conquer Kashmir jointly. One third of the spoil were promised to Lahore Darbar. The army of Afghans took control of Kashmir jointly. One third of the spoil were promised to Lahore Darbar.1 The army of Afghans took control of Kashmir but forces of Lahore Darbar under Dewan Mohkam Chand got nothing except they were able to bring Shah Shuja to Lahore where his family had taken shelter. Begum of Shah Shuja had promised to give Kohinoor to Ranjit Singh in case Shsh Shuja was brought from Kashmir.2 Later on Ranjit Singh got Kohinoor diamond.
The political development in Kashmir alarmed Jehandad Khan, the governor of Attock. He offered the occupation of Attock to Ranjit Singh on a very nominal price. Attock was occupied by Ranjit Singh in 1813 A.D. Attock had been considered as gateway of Peshawar on one hand and gateway to India on the other. Its occupation by Ranjit Singh could not go uncontested. Fateh Khan sent Afghan army under Dost Mohammad one of his brothers to surround Attock and not to allow supplies to Attock fort by the Lahore Darbar. This was to oppose the army of Ranjit Singh. Dewan Mohkam Chand was sent form Lahore with the army and supplies for Attock. Hasan Abdal was made the base by the Lahore Darbar army and battle was fought in the plains of Chhuchh. Ranjit Singh’s army won decisive victory in June-July 1813.3 This was a first successful campaign against Afghans. Had Afghans won, they would have recovered all the territories conquered by Ahmad Shah Abdali. This confirmed Ranjit Singh's occupation of Attock.
Jehad Against Sikhs and Conquest of Multan
Ater the occupation of Attock, Maharaja Ranjit Singh turned his attention towards Multan. It was led by Muzaffar Khan Sadozai Afghan. Several attempts were made but every time Nazrana was paid. In 1818 the force of Lahore Darbar decided to conquer Multan, the ruler of Multan also made huge preparations and declared Jehad to defend the fort of Multan which was the strongest fort in this area. The siege of the fort Multan, which was the strongest fort in this area, continued for four months. Whenever breaches were made by Sikh cannons, the Jehadis immediately repaired the thick wall o the fort. On one such occasion Akalis led by Sadhu Singh pushed themselves in the fort followed by army. Jehadis most valiantly fought. There was fight in the streets and bazaars. Ultimately, Ranjit Singh’s army was victorious and Multan was annexed to Kingdom.4
Griffin described the final scene:
“Here the old Nawab with his eight sons and all that remained of his garrison stood sword in hand resolved to fight to death. There died the white bearded Muzaffar Khan scorning to accept quarter died with five of his sons. The sixth was wounded severely in the face and two accepted quarter and were saved. Few of the garrison escaped with their lives and the whole city was given to plunder.”5
Occupation of Kashmir - 1819 A.D
Maharaja made several attempts to conquer Kashmir after his fiasco in 1812. His invasion of Kashmir in 1814 was complete disaster as Azim Khan Barakzai, governor of Kashmir defeated the invading army. In 1819 A.D. fateh Mohammad, Azim Khan’s eldest brother was killed in the family feud and Azim Khan rushed to Kabul with his chosen force and appointed Jabbar Khan in his place. One of his ministers deserted his master and took asylum with Ranjit Singh and disclosed him that the best army had been taken to Kabul and he could conquer Kashmir. Ranjit Singh ordered preparations to invade Kashmir. The first wing advance from Pir Panjaal, the second by Rajauri and third Bhimber. Ranjit Singh advanced by Rajauri route. Kashmir was conquered and annexed to Lahore Darbar. Forts in the surrounding areas were occupied.6
Jabbar Khan, deputy of Azim Khan could not face the Lahore Darbar army and was routed with his 12000 soldiers. Kashmir ‘Paradise on Earth’
(Ghar farduo bar zamin ast hamin ast amin ast)
was annexed to the Lahore kingdom to the great chagrin of Azim Khan who had taken the leadership of Barakzai brothers. Maharaja Ranjit Singh's aggressive policy of conquest of Multan and Kashmir did not stop there. His army conquered the trans Indus areas of Mankers, Pakhli, Damtaur, and Darband.7 This greatly enraged Azim Khan who was all powerful in Kabul after the murder of his eldest brother Fateh Khan. He assumed the title of Mir-ul- Mommin and declared Jehad against Sikhs. Azim Khan was able to collect huge army of Afghans who had tied coffins on the heads, gathered near Naushehra with the loud cries of Loha Gaza (Great Jehad).
Battle of Naushehra - 1823 A.D.
It is estimated that Azim Khan who was wazir under Shah Mohammad was able to muster strong army of more than 40,000 Afghans (Ghazis) who were prepared to lay down their lives. Ranjit Singh was aware of this eventuality and he himself reached Attock with his army. In the first round he sent his troops to capture Khairabad across the Attock and the army returned with heavy losses. One strategy followed by Ranjit Singh was to divide the Ghazis. The Ghazis north of river Kabul were not allowed to meet the Ghazis on the southern side of the river. The forces of Lahore Darbar first built bridge across Indus which was smashed by Ghazis.
Ranjit Singh was struck and shaken by the hugeness of the army opposing him. He addressed the army like Nepoleon Bonaparte and said, “Khalsaji we have no option except to die or to win.”8
The Lahore Darbar army was inspired to take up the courage and in the meantime Akali Phula Singh with his band of desperados plunged into the battle and his entire contingent was killed. First he fought on horseback when his horse was killed he continued his attack on elephant.9
Now Ranjit Singh decided to cross Attock after throwing a tray full of diamonds into the river and plunged his horse into it. Crossing the river on horseback has become a legend.10
The Afghans were defeated after great slaughter. This defeat rankled in the eyes of Azim Khan who had organized this Jehad. He died of shock. Before his death he called all his wives and asked them to give all their ornaments and jewels to his son to wipe off the disgrace of the defeat of his father.11
The battle of Naushehra was very important in the career of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. This enabled him to lead his forces to Peshawar. Echos of the cries of Khalsa were heard in the whole of valley of Peshawar. But Ranjit Singh was wise enough not to annex Peshawar because he wanted to consolidate his Trans-Indus possessions.
N.K. Sinha has rightly stated, “As the battle with Fateh Khan on the plains of Chhuchh decide the supremacy of the Sikhs eastward of Indus, this campaign established his power between that of river and Peshawar.”12
J.B. Hasrat has given and apt description of the political situation after the battle of Naushehra in the following words:
“The political confusion in Afghanistan had enabled the Sikhs to gradually take possession of Afghan provinces in northern India. The reduction of Peshawar as dependency of the Sikhs was a wise move. Kashmir had been occupied and Multan annexed. Since the death of Muhammed Azim Khan, the strong unifying hand of the Barakzai family, the glory and determination of the Afghan race as empire builders has departed. For sometime the provinces of Kabul, Kandhar and Peshawar had retained the semblance of a loose cohesion, but with the defection of the Peshawar Barakzais and their becoming the tributaries of the Sikhs, the unity of the Barakzai family as rulers of an empire was gone. However, the Peshawar Barakzais were not fully trusted by the Lahore Government, and nominal tribute was paid to the Sikhs under duress and threat of expulsion. For about 4 years this unsatisfactory arrangement continued, when in 1827 all North was set ablaze with the cries of Jehad for the blood of the Sikhs.”13
Occupation of Peshawar
According to Ain-i-Akbari all Trans-Indus areas including Peshawar was part of Kabul province Peshawar has been under Kabul's rule of centuries.
Seeing political convulsion in Afghanistan Maharaja Ranjit Singh crossed Indus after the conquest of Multan in 1818 A.D. Next, he entered into the Peshawar valley and occupied Peshawar. It was given to Jahandad Khan who had helped Ranjit Singh to occupy Attock fort. He was to pay nominal tribute. It was for the first time after about eight hundred years that some Indian ruler occupied Peshawar. Soon after Ranjit Simngh took measures to wipe out small dependencies of Deaeuband Mankera (1821) Deaeuband and Tonk with those surrounding areas.14
Kashmir had already been conquered and annexed in 1819 A.D. all these factors contributed to the armed conflict which is known as Battle of Naushehra, the account of which has already been given.
After the victory at Battle of Naushehra Ranjit Singh again occupied Peshawar but did not annex it because he wanted to consolidate his hold on the surrounding areas.
Syed Ahmad’s Jehad Against the Sikhs
Syed Ahmad born in Bareilly served in the army of Amir Khan Rohilla and later on deserted him. He visited Mecca and on his return declared himself Khalifa. He started preaching hatred against the Sikhs. He collected turbulent Yusafzai tribes and proclaimed Jehad against the Sikhs. In 1827 he moved form Panjtar with his levies and fell upon Akora. Here he had to face a strong Sikh force under Budh Singh Sandhanwalia who repulsed him. A large number of his followers were killed in the battle which was fought at Saido. Budh Singh Sandhanwalia was also killed in this battle. Syed Ahmad retired to hills again. He was able to recapture Peshawar from Yar Mohammad Khan but timely arrival of Prince Sher Singh and General Ventura saved the situation. Later on in the battle of Balakot where Syed Ahmad had to face Kanwar Sher Singh, who overtook him and Syed Ahmad was killed in action in Kay 1831 A.D.
Alexander Gardner has described how Khalifa was killed in the action in his memoirs in the following words:
“Syed Ahmad and the Maulvi surrounded by his surviving Indian followers were fighting desperately hand to hand with the equally fanatical Akalis of Sikh army. They had been taken by surprise and isolated from the main body of the Syed's forces which fought badly without leader. Even as I caught sight of Syed and Maulvi they fell pierced by a hundred weapons. Those around them were slain to a man. I saw literally within a few hundred yards of the Syed when he fell but I did not see the angels descent and carry him off to paradise.”
Annexation of Peshawar in 1834 A.D.
After final liquidation of Syed Ahmad, Maharaja Ranjit Singh annexed Peshawar in 1834 A.D. This had a gfreat effect on Barakzais as they had been deprived of their possession. Ranjit Singh’s advance was a menace to the Mohammadan tribe. The political, religious sentiment and instinct for self preservation impelled the Barakzais chief Dost Mohammad to make a grand effort to recover Peshawar. Therefore he took the title of Amir-ul-Mommin and declared Jehad against the ‘infidel’ Sikhs. Dost Mohammad was able to collect more than forty thousand troops besides innumerable voluntary Ghazis. He was able to acquire 37 guns with 700 rounds each. Large supplies of grain were also collected.
Bloodless Victory for Ranjit Singh
It was a great crisis in history. Had Ranjit Singh been defeated he would have been driven across Indus. Here Ranjit Singh wanted to gain time to concentrate his army to measure strength with the Afghans. He deputed his courtiers Faqir Azia-ud-Din and Harlarn, an American Infantry officer, to negotiate with Dost Mohammad. Faqir Azia-up-din and Harlarn, were able to convince Sultan Mohammad, brother of Dost Mohammad that he would be given Jagir consisting of Khat, Tonk and Bannu. Consequently, Sultan Mohammad defected and separated his army form the Kehadis. This had a very disheartening effect on Dost Mohammad and his allies. Both the armies -Jehadis and Lahore Darbar forces faced each for other seventeen days. Soon after the defection of Sultan Mohammad the Jehadis retired without firing a shot. They took with them all ammunition etc. This was bloodless victory for Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
Subjugation of Afghan Turbulent Tribes
The rule of Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1799-1839) will ever remain watershed in the annals of the trans-Indus regions especially Peshwar, Bannu as well as Hazara. All these areas along with Kashmir were a part of the Afghanistan. Olaf Caroe writes, "Ranjit Singh had wrested from Afghan their fairest provinces not only those east of Indus where Kabul rulers could claim no racial affinity, but Peshawar itself and Bannu, fertile gardens inhabited by proud people of Afghan and Pathan stock. Maharaja Ranjit Singh undertook strong measures to subdue and control the ferocious tribes of north-western frontier. These tribes had not ever been subjugated and brought under control.
Gazetteer writes: “The Mughal sway was more nominal than real. They appear to have been content to levy revenue and there is nothing to show any serious government was attempted. The whole district paid only half of a lakh of rupees and heads of each tribe were practically independent.” Hari Singh Nalwa who has been described as “an ideal Sikh soldier” by Olaf Caroe was appointed as Governor of Peshawar in 1834. All these trans Indus areas were never under any regular administration as it has been rightly stated by Olaf Caroe that “territorial link of administration has to be traced to its beginnings in the Sikh occupation of Peshawar.” Maharaja Ranjit Singh and his General Hari Singh Nalwa dealt with the north-western frontier tribes in two phases dividing it into sectors viz; (1) Hazara sector and (II) Peshawar sector.
Role of Hari Singh Nalwa
Hazara, the country, west of Kashmir, east of Peshawar and north-west of Attock was conquered and annexed by Maharaja Ranjit Singh in 1820. Its first Nazim under Ranjit Singh was Amar Singh Majithia who ruled over the territory for two years. He was successful in suppressing the rebellion of Muhammad Khan Tarin and was able to defeat Dhund, Tarin, Tanol and Kharal tribes who were fighting against him. The battle was over, the enemy had taken to flight and the Sikh forces had retired form the field. When Amar Singh, thirsty and fatigued went down to the little stream Samandar to bathe, he had only few horsemen with him and number of the enemy returning and seeing the weakness of the little party came down and killed Amar Singh and his followers after a desperate defence. After the death of Amar Singh Majithia, Hari Singh Nalwa was appointed the Nazim of Hazara. He was not unknown to the Hazara tribes. When Maharaja Ranjit Singh led the army to conquer Mankera in 1821, he ordered Hari Singh Nalwa, who was in Kashmir to join him there. At that time Hari Singh Nalwa had only seven thousand armymen. On the way he was opposed by twenty thousand wild mountaineers living in the Pakhly hills. Pakhly or Hazara was the spot dreaded by merchants for these tribes demanded toll on the merchandise. Hari Singh, after his vain efforts to induce the enemy to yield him a passage attacked them with vigour and storming their stockade and defeated them with great slaughter. This was no mean achievement to defeat about the twenty thousand Hazara tribes with seven thousand men. Maharaja was much pleased over this exploit of Hari Singh Nalwa. This incident indicated how precarious were the conditions. N.K.Sinha has rightly stated that “Pakhly, Damtaur, Torbela and Darband region Sikh sway was still precarious.” Hari Singh Nalwa was at his right time to be sent there to create a tradition of Griffin, “Hazara was the most turbulent province under the Sikh rule.”
In order to understand the measures of Hari Singh Nalwa, it is essential to understand the geographical condition of this region as well as tribal distribution. Hasham Khan belonged to the northern area and was the leader of Kral tribe (or Karlani tribe which is a branch of Khattak tribe). In order to have full control over the area, Hari Singh Nalwa built fort at Nara, modern Tehsil Abbotabad. Army was stationed there to keep in check the Pathans on this side.
On the western side of Hazara territory the river Indus forms the natural defence but the north an eastern side was bounded by partly river Jhelum and partly by the mountainous range known as Pakhly range. In the Ain-i-Akbari, the entire territory is known as Pakhly., Pakly appears to have derived form Pactyam nation mentioned by Herodotus.
According to Ibbetson , the following tribes chiefly occupied the Hazara territory: Deilzak, Swati, Jadun, Tanaoli and Shilamani. In the lower range, according to Prem Singh, the main Pathan tribes were Tarin, Utmanzai, Tarkholi. In order to check these ferocious tribes, Hari Singh Nalwa adopted suitable measures to control them. He built a very strong fort in the valley surrounded by mountains and named it after the eighth Guru of the Sikhs as Harkrishangarh and also founded a town named Haripur. The town was surrounded by a wall which was four yards thick and sixteen yards high and had four gates. Drinking water was dug to carry water into the streets of the town. Baron Hugal visited the town on December 23, 1835 and he found the town humming with activity.
In the upper ranges of Pakhli there lived mainly Jadun, Tanawali and Swatis. Hari Singh built forts at strategic places and garrisoned them with army. The roads were built to link them, so that reinforcement should be sent from one fort to another fort at the time of crisis. The forts built in the upper ranges of Pakhil were: Fort Nowan Shehar, Fort Dhamtaur, Fort Darband and Fort Shinkiari. Old fort at Tarbela was repaired.
Tribes in Peshawar Sector
When Peshawar was conquered and annexed, Hari Signh Nalwa was appointed its Governor in 1834. It was very important to understand the tribal distribution in the Peshawar region. Khattaks predominantly settled in Khattak, country from the south of Kabul river on the low lands from Indus to Naushehra. They were fanatical people and never liked the Sikhs. Yusafzais were the largest of the Peshawar tribes. They were extremely warlike. Muhammadzai inhabited the area north-east of Peshawar. The Girgianis had their settlements south of Muhammadzai areas and they were in open rebellion as their lands had been given to Barakzai chiefs under the Sikh Government. Afridis ruled supreme in the Khaibar area. Besides these, there were tribes like Khalils Mohammads etc. The tribesman in each Khel looked to his own Malik or Khan or council of elders viz jirga for guidance in matters of common interest and not to the ruling authority at Peshawar. As such he was ever ready to take up arms when called upon by chief against the infidel Sikhs.
Hari Singh Nalwa knew how to match his ferosity towards Afghans against their hatred of Sikhs.
He set up a very strong administration in the Peshawar valley. He levied a cess of Rupee four per house on the Yusafzais. This cess was to be collected in cash or in kind. For its realization personal household property could be appropriated. There was scarcely a village which was not burnt. In such awe, were his visitations held that his name was used by mothers as a term of a fright to hush their unruly children.
It was prudently realized that although the spell of Afghan supremacy was broken the region predominantly populated by turbulent and warlike Muhammadan tribes could not be securely held unless a large army was permanently stationed there. A force of twelve thousand was with Hari Singh Nalwa to quell any sign of turbulence Khalsa resounded in the valley. Part of the city of Peshawar was burnt and the residence of the Barakzai governors at Bala Hissar was raised to the ground. Hari Singh Nalwa strengthened the Sikh position by garrisoning the frontier forts.
Administrative Measures Adopted
In order to subjugate north-western frontier tribes Hari Singh Nalwa examined the topography of the Peshawar region. There were three rivers flowing from Afghanistan to Peshawar forming three water routes as well as land routes as has always been the case in the hilly area. The highest tribnutary of the river Indua on the western side was the river Indus on the western side was the river Kabul. Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan, and Jalalabad, a very important town between Kabul and Peshawar, have been situated on the banks of this river. Naushehra where a decisive battle had been fought in 1823 Between the Afghan and the Sikhs was also situated on the bank of this river. The second important Barha river was a tributary of river Kabul and joined it from the southern side. Peshawar, the capital of the region was situated on it. The Swat river, which was tributary of river Kabul, joined it from the north. Hari Singh Nalwa decided to build forts in order to check infiltration of and the invasion of the Afghans on all these routes. The nearest mountainous pass to Peshawar was Khaibar pass, which was only nine miles from Peshawar. On the previous occasions all important invaders had made invasions on India through it. Hari Singh Nalwa had decided to construct forts on all these strategic points. On the bank of river Kabul, Michni fort was constructed and it was put under the command of Nichhater Singh son of a well known General Dhanna Singh Malwai. In this fort were stationed 300 infantry men, 100 horsemen, 10 artillery men, 2 big and 2 small cannons. On the bank of river Barha, a strong fort was built named Barha Fort, where 300 infantry, 100 cavalry, 3 cannons were placed and suitable provisions were supplied. It was placed under Jhanda Singh Butalia. On the Swat river side there was a strategic place where three routes met. These three rotes were- one from Kabul, another from Hashatnagar, which was an Afghan settlement on the extreme north; and the third was Gandhav Pass, which was a minor Pass. Hari Singh constructed a fort here. It was named as Shankargarh. There were stationed 500 infantry, 300 cavalry, 35 artillery men, 2 big and 10 small cannons. It was placed under Lehna Singh Sandhanwalia who was a very well known warrior. But the most important route was the Khaibar Pass which had been the traditional route for the invaders since time immemorial.
After surveying the entire area, Hari Singh found a small mound on the eastern end of Khaibar Pass. It was in the nearby village named Jamrud. It had a very small mud fort. Hari Singh decided to build a fort there. Necessary material was collected and a foundation of very strong fort was laid there on Oct. 17, 1836. According to Prem Singh, Hari Singh Nalwa himself laid the foundation of that fort after prayers. The masons and the labourers were working there continuously and they were also able to finish this historic fort after a month and twenty-five days. Its walls were 4 yards wide, 12 yards high. It was named as Fatehgarh Sahib. There were stationed 800 infantry, 200 cavalry, 80 artillery men, 10 big cannons and 12 small cannons. Maha Singh, a very tried General was appointed the commander of the fort. In the fort Jamrud, there was scarcity of water. There was a little stream which flowed in the Khaibar Pass itself and it was under the control of the Afridis. In order to have constant flow of water in the fort, the Afridis were given a jagir worth Rs.1200/-.an alternate arrangement of water was also made in the fort in case this flow of water was stopped. A very big well was dug in the fort to supply water if Afridis stopped the water.
Another important fort was built on the road leading to this fort linking Peshawar. It was just in the middle of way between Jamrud and Peshawar. It was name Burj Hari Singh and 100 men were stationed there. It was comparatively small fort.
Besides this, Hari Singh got repaired the old forts like Attock, Khairabad, Shubkadar and Jehangira. The line of forts on the north-western side was linked by roads so that reinforcement could reach there in the time of crisis. Peshawar was strongly fortified and it was linked with Attock by a line of towers, erected at the distance of two kos.
All these measured alarmed the Afghans in Afghanistan, especially Dost Mohammad, the Barakzai Chief of Kabul. The Afghans apprehended that their dangerous neighbours would make an inroad beyond the formidable defile. They, therefore, resolved to put a stop to any further advance of Sikhs into the tribal areas. A force of 8,000 strong with 50 cannons under Akbar Khan and Abdul Samad Khan proceeded towards the Khaibar to dislodge Sikhs from Jamrud and swelled their ranks to 20,000 horse and foot. Hari Singh Nalwa was killed in the battle of Jamrud fighting most valiantly in 1837.Thus ended the life of a great General who had become terror to Afghans and subdued the turbulent tribes of north-western frontier.
The Afghans had been invading India for a number of centuries (1001-1798). They had never seen a defeat at the hands of Indians whom they considered Kafirs and whom they contemptuously called"Hindku". For the first time of their history they were decisively defeated at the Battle of Balakot of Naushehra (1823), Battle of Saido(1827) and Battle of Balkot (1831) by Sikhs whom they considered "Kafir". Now they were bewildered and confused and began to say “Khalsa ham Khuda Shuda” (Khalsa too has become believer of God).
1. J.B. Hasrat, Life and Times of Ranjit Singh, Hoshiarpur, 1977, p.116
2. Syed Waheeduddin, Real Ranjeet Singh, New Delhi, 1976, pp.89-90
3. Hari Ram Gupts, Sikh History, New Delhi, p.101.
4. Ibid, pp.111-112.
5. Lepel Griffin, Ranjit Singh, Delhi, 1957,pp.186-87.
6. J.B. Hasrat, Life and Times of Ranjit Singh, p.102
7. N.K. Sinha, Ranjit Singh, Calcutta, 1968,p.60.
8. Umdatul Twarikh, Dafter 2 (Punjabi version), Vol .II, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar,p.373
9. J.B. Hasrat, Life and Times of Ranjit Singh, p.122.
10. Zafar Nama, Ranjit Singh (Persian), Lahore, 1928,p.162
11. N.K. Sinha, Ranjit Singh, Calcutta,p.93.
12. Ibid, p.63.
13. J.B. Hasrat, Life and Times of Ranjit Singh, p.115.
14. J.B. Hasrat, Life and Times of Ranjit Singh,1977, p.119.
16. Alexander Gardner, Fall of Sikh Empire, (ed) Badan Singh, Delhi, 1999,p.119
17. N.K. Sinha, Ranjit Singh, p.99.
19. Olaf Caroe, The Afghans, London, 1958,p.319
20. Attock District Gazetteer, Lahore, 1932, p.47
21. N.K. Sinha, Ranjit Singh, Calcutta, 1960,p.63.
22. Olaf Caroe, op.cit; p.299.
23. Ibid, p325.
24. Lepel Griffin, Chiefs and Families of Note in Punjab, Vol.1, Lahore, 1940,p.415.
25. Ibid; Vol.I,p.87.
26. Ranjit Singh, op,cit. p 60 .
27. Chiefs and Families of Note in Punjab, Vol.I,p.87.
28. Ain-e-Akbary (translator: Francis Gladwin), Vol.II, Calcutta, 1784, pp.191-204.
29. Denzil Ibbetson, Punjab Castes and Tribes, Lahore, 1916,p.63.
30. Ibid; p.64.
31. Prem Singh, Hari Singh Nalwa (Punjabi), 8th edition, Ludhiana,pp.164-65.
32. Baron Von Hugel, Travels in Punjab and Kashmir, Patiala, 1970, p.206
33. Denzil Ibbetson, op.cit; p.63
34. Hari Singh Nalwa, op,cit, p.267.
35. J.D. Cunningham, History of Sikhs, Oxford University Press, 1918, p. 199
36. J.B. Hasrat, Llife and Times of Ranjit Singh, p.88
37. Ibid; p.137
38. Hari Singh Nalwa, op.cit; p.244
39. Ibid; p.245.
40. Surinder Singh Johar, Hari Singh Nalwa, op. cit, New Delhi, p. 148.
41. Hari Singh Nalwa, op.cit., p. 244.
42. Ibid; p.243.
43. Ibid; pp.243-244.
44. N.K.Sinha, op.cit, p .111
45. Lepel Griffin op.cit, pp. 87, 89, 90.
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