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Guru Nanak's Contribution Towards
Human Peace and Prosperity

Harnam Singh Shan *

Guru Nanak, as is well known, was a highly enlightened, dedicated, benevolent and universal Teacher of mankind. His life-long endeavour, noble exhortations and all-embracing teachings contributed much, therefore, to the thought and activity, peace and prosperity of humanity. Says Puran Singh, the blessed bard of the Land of Five Rivers:

Nanak, the Master, sowed the seed of Nam in the hearts of men;
And the fields are ripe with the golden corn.
The harvests shall come, and the harvests shall pass;
But the seed is of God and is growing.
He gave Angad his own love,
his own face and name and soul. 1

He gave him his own throne in the hearts of men.

He called him "Born of my loins".
and made another Nanak on this earth.
This is Nanak, the Master, the spirit of God.
That fashions Himself for ever in the image of man.
The harvests shall come,
and the harvests shall pass;
But the seed is of God and is growing. 2

The divine seed and status which the Master bestowed upon his chosen disciple, Lehna, renamed Angad, 3 flourished during the apostleship of his subsequent eight spiritual successors through whom God continued to speak. They also called themselves `Nanak' 4 , took up his torch and disseminated his message, strengthened his mission and consolidated his community which grew, in due course, into a new, distinct, revealed and complete religion, called Sikhism. "The harvest which ripened", tells Narang, "in the time of Guru Gobind Singh had been sown by Guru Nanak and nurtured by his successors. The sword which carved the Khalsa's way to glory was, undoubtedly, forged by Gobind (Singh); but the steel had been provided by Guru Nanak. 5

Besides, "the combination of piety and practical activity which Guru Nanak manifested in his own life, he bequeathed to his followers, and it remains characteristic of many who own him as Guru today. At its best, it is a piety devoid of superstition and a practical activity compounded with determination and an immense generosity. "It explains much," adds McLeod, "that has happened in the Punjab during the last four centuries and it explains much that can be witnessed there today." 6

2

Hence, the life, work and teachings of such a great Man and Master who, in the words of Cust, "by his actions and precepts has influenced the ideas and conscience of a large number of his fellow-creatures, 7 both during his life-time and for centuries after his death, can never be devoid of interest. When that influence has not been owing to his wealth, rank or power, but simply to his own merits, that Man must be called truly Great; and, when we find that his motives were unselfish, that after a long life devoted to the instruction of others in the paths of virtue and moral purity, he died poor, delegated his office not to his children but to one of his disciples, whom he considered most virtuous, that Man must be considered truly Good, as well as truly Great." 8

Only a truly Good and great man could have begged from God, the Creator, such things to sustain himself, such powers to serve his fellow-creatures and such virtues to dwell upon His praise, as we find enumerated in his following appeal _ an appeal the like of which we have yet to find elsewhere:

I beg from You, my Lord !
The alms of continence and truth as rice, compassion as wheat;
Good deeds as milk, content as butter;
And attainment of Your grace
As the receiving of chiarity in a leafy bowl.
Pray let the calf of my mind suck in poise the milk of the milch-cow
Of forgiveness and forbearance.
Please bless me with the cloth of Your praise and modesty.
So that I may ever dwell upon Your merits
. 9

The tenets and teachings of such a Man and Master met with the challenges not only from the moral and religious degradation of the natives but also from that of the political and cultural onslaughts of the aliens. They faced not only the situation that confronted his own age but also set a pattern for meeting with the same under such situations in times to come.

3

Guru Nanak's message, in fact, revolutionized human thinking and enthused a new spirit in human activity. It made the people conscious of their situation and position, duty and responsibility by exhorting them in inspiring and invigorating verses such as the following:

Let us deck ourselves with the silks of merits
And adopt our arena (i.e., the field of duty),
Sticking to our ideal steadfastly
. 10

He made them fearless by telling them, so clearly and authoritatively:

He who is immersed in the fear of God,
Becomes fearless.
11

Reiterating his firm belief in the equality of all human beings and conceding their fundamental right to be free from all sorts of fear, oppression and tyranny, the teacher in Nanak assured them that _

By lodging the fear of God in the mind
All other fears (of the world) as also of the Yama are vanished from it.
So, what fear is left to frighten us any more?...
To be possessed of any fear other than God's, is vain;
For, all other fears are only perturbation of mind
. 12

Addressing the seekers of the path thus shown by him, the Master told them frankly and unambiguously that _

If you are keen to play the game of love,
Step into my street with your head placed on your palm.
Having set your foot upon it,
Lay down your head without fear or grudge.
13

Guru Nanak, thus, freed human kind from all sorts of fears and fetters, mental as well as physical, social as well as political. He liberated them from the age-old shackles of mythology, ritualism, casteism, spirits, superstitions and the like, to such an extent that the holy compiler of his sacred writings in Guru Granth Sahib observed a little later that _

The egg-shell of doubts has shattered, and the mind is illuminated.
The master has cut off the fetters from our feet
And has thus freed us from the bonds.
14

"Thus Guru Nanak extricated his followers", held Cunningham in 1849 after actively participating in the Anglo-Sikh wars, "from the accumulated errors of ages, and enjoined upon them erect and free, unbiased in mind and unfettered by rules, to become an increasing body of truthful worshippers." 15 This is what the learned amanuensis, Bhai Gurdas Bhalla, also affirmed then in his own inimitable style:

On the appearance of the True Guru Nanak,
The mist vanished
And light shone forth over the world
. 16

And this was what actually happened about five hundred years ago. "His revolutionary message threw into relief the universal truths of higher religion and the errors of misguided doctrines. He strengthened the national conscience by turning it once more towards buoyant realism. He roused the people to a sense of dignity of man as the creative genius behind world history and as builder of human destiny, culture and civilization." 17 He told people rather in challenging terms:

There is no joy or point, in just coming and going
If one comes into the world and passes out
Without accomplishing anything good and beneficial
. 18

He roused their feeling of human responsibility for resisting evil and aggression, for defending their own honour and safeguarding the right and respect of others. He told them in very clear words that one who compromises with one's self-respect, is not worth even the salt that one eats:

If one lives without self-respect,
All that one eats goes to waste
. 19

He, therefore, exhorted them to remain for ever alert and wide-awake, always up-and-doing for safeguarding their rights, aspirations and convictions.

Guru Nanak himself protested vehemently against the invasion by the foreign forces 20 and the onslaught of the alien culture 21 :

In this distressful Kali age,
The Shariat Law (of the Muslims) is operative;
And the Qazi (the Muslim Judge) is exalted as Krishan
(i.e., a Hindu deity)
. 22

Condemning the incursion in 1526 AD of Babar, the first Mughal emperor of India, he stated in very bold and forceful verses:

Babar has rushed from Kabul with the wedding-party of sins;
And demands forcibly the possession of our motherland.
Modesty and righteousness have gone into hiding and;
Falsahood is strutting about the sham glory
. 23

Commenting, similarly, on the demoralizing effects of such barbarous invasions and the socio-religio-cultural onslaughts that followed, he observed in his usual bold and straight forward manner:

Quran and other Mohammadan scriptures have become the Approved Books.
The Brahmins, the Vedas and other Hindus scriptures
Are not being given due respect.
The Name of God has also been changed into Rehman
24

Guru Nanak felt so strongly about all that, that he himself took up the challenge of the time and succeeded in evoking socio-cultural awareness and effective response to meet the terrible situation. According to Gokal Chand Narang, "after centuries of subjection, (he) was the first among the Hindus (to arouse such a feeling and also) to raise his voice against tyranny and oppression". 25 Assessing such a historic role and unique contribution, Anil Chandra Banerjee also rightly claims that "Guru Nanak resembled other medieval reformers in revitalizing religion and morality; but he was alone in creating a distinct and self-conscious socio-religious community which was destined to play a fruitful and glorious role in his country's history." 26

But that too is not all. The grandeur of the Guru's personality, farslightedness of his vision, strength of his spirit, vastness of his knowledge, intensity of his experience, piety of his life, purity of his actions, beauty of his hymns and universality of his teachings ushered in and organized, in the course of time, a new, conspicuous, most modern and `ever-green' religion _ the religion of love, light, service and social justice _ in the world. He created a distinct notion and a new human order which played a distinguished and historic role in the past and has a still more prominent role to play in the future. Says Arnold Toynbee, the great historian of our times, "If human race survives its follies at all Sikhs (i.e., the followers of Guru Nanak) shall surely be there on this planet as a vigorous, hardy and go-getting Homo sapiens ." 27 The history of Sikhism and the prophesy of Toynbee go a long way to prove the fulfillment of the lofty wish once cherished by Harrison in 1908 in the following words: "We need a reformed education resting on a scientific philosophy, revised and purified domestic manners, a new series of social institutions, a reformed and new commonwealth. But, above all, we need a reformed religion _ social in its origin, in its object and in its methods, human, practical and scientifically true." 28

It was, in fact, Guru Nanak and his enlightened teaching that gave rise to such a modern, universal and non-sectarian religion, five centuries ago, which is `social in its origin, in its object and in its metods'; which is 'human, practical and scientifically true'; and has generally been called the `house-holders' religion and even an enlightened humanism. It was again Guru Nanak, the Divine Master, who vigorously pleaded that a householder was in no way less qualified and acceptable to God than a hermit; and that temporal and secular activity did not stand in the way of spiritual pursuit and salvation. Mentioning the distinguishing quality of the True Teachers, he, therefore, held:

Contemplation of the True Lord brings that illumination
Which enables one to remain unattached in the midst of worldly pleasures.
Such is the distinctive greatness of the True Master
That through his grace and guidance,
One can attain salvation even while living with one's wife and children.
29
(i.e., while leading a normal domestic life)

This clearly counters the observation of W H McLeod that Guru Nanak "stands firmly within the. Nirguna Sampradaya , the so-called Sant Tradition of Northern India"; and that he did not originate any "school of thought" and hence cannot be considered the "founder" of a new religion, called "The Sikh Religion". 30 McLeod seems to have conveniently overlooked the fact that in several material aspects, the doctrine propounded by Guru Nanak not only goes far beyond what the Saints of the said tradition professed, but also runs counter to certain basic tenets of the Nath as well as the Vaishnava traditions, which, as McLeod himself says, constituted the basis of the Saint Tradition. Without entering into details at this stage, it may safely be pointed out again that Guru Nanak alone laid considerable emphasis on man's truthful conduct and beneficial actions, his basic duties and obligations towards his fellow-beings and the society at large. He was the one who repeatedly emphasized the part a man or woman has to play as a householder and not merely as a recluse preparing himself or herself for the next world while escaping his/her obligations towards his/her family and fellow-beings. As a matter of fact, Guru Nanak was absolutely against asceticism. He did not consider the world as unreal but observed, on the other hand, that _

This world is the abode of the True Lord.
The True Lord Himself abides in it.
31

And also that _

One should keep on communicating with one's fellow-beings,
So long as one lives in this world
. 32

It was he alone who maintained "worldly life, without being informed by the force of spirituality, is barren; and spiritual life without its expression in the world, is just sterile. 33

This was certainly a very bold step, quite contrary to what his predecessors and other religious teachers of the time had ever thought of. Time and again, he emphasized that God was not only in heaven but was very much present on the earth itself, prevalent in Nature and enshrined in the very heart of every human being. According to him _

God created Nature and pervades it . 34
God is hidden in every heart; and every heart is illumined by Him . 35

God is not far off.
He is here as your own essence
. 36

A careful and unbiased comparison of the doctrine of the Saint Tradition to that of Guru Nanak, taken in its totality, at once brings out the original, distinct and far-reaching contribution that Guru Nanak made to the religious thought of the world. It was this new and revolutionary school of thought that, in due course, impelled his followers to play an important part in the history of India, culminating in the glorious achievement of his tenth successor, Guru Gobind Singh (1666-1708), by instilling an indomitable spirit in the hearts of the downtrodden and helpless Indians to free themselves of the cruelties of their oppressive rulers and horrors of the foreign invasions. Hence, said Dorothy Field, sixty years earlier than McLeod, that the religion founded by Guru Nanak is not only `a distinct world religion' but `is also one which should appeal to the occidental mind. It is essentially a practical religion. If judged from the pragamatical stand-point, it would rank almost first in the world. Of no other religion can it be said that it has made a nation in so short a time. The Sikh Religion is one of the most interesting at present exiting in India, possibly indeed in the whole world. That it should have transformed the outcaste Indian into a fine and loyal warrior, is little short of a miracle." 37 And that miracle came about just a century and a half after Guru Nanak, who, according to Bhai Gurdas, "had been made manifest for the welfare of all mankind," 38

And who struck his coin in the world and instituted this Nirmal (Pure) Panth": 39

By instituting the Nirmal Panth, that is, the Panth of truth or the Sikh Way of Life, "What Guru Nanak sought to accomplish was a regeneration of the decadent Indian people through bringing them back to abiding spiritual and moral values _ the worship of the Supreme Being who is Uncreated and eternal as against the primitivism and polytheism prevalent in the land; to mould the individual life on the principle of the search for emancipation which means spiritual and moral purity; and to bring about a just and equitable social system as against the crying injustice of caste inequalities and passive submission to the tyranny of various kinds from those in power. This spirit of idealism was given by the Guru its ancient name of Dharma , whose pillars are daya (compassion, humanity), purity, humility, contentment, renunciation of worldly objectives and lures, and action in the way of God. Guru Nanak gave voice to the deep agony and suffering of the people and instructed them in the meanings of Dharma as pure and righteous conduct in the individual sphere and the wider context of human relations. To the dumb masses suffering from the tyranny of priest and feudal lords for millennia and then also religious persecution, he brought spiritual light, a sense of human dignity and the faith and courage to create a better world by sacrifice and suffering borne in the way of God. While to the Hindu, the Guru gave an enriched and purified vision of spirituality, to the Muslim, he taught the essence of morality and humanity, as against the bigoted and narrow teachings of the priests of his faith. This vision of people permeated with the spirit of tolerance and brotherliness, and putting away the hatred born of creeds, was a unique nation-building effort in an age of manifold fragmentation of those who inhabited our land." 40 In the words of R C Majumdar, Guru Nanak's "was the first and also the last successful attempt to bring together the Hindus and Muslims in a common fold of spiritual and social brotherhood." 41 Hence said Toynbee, paying him and the religion founded by him a glowing tribute for this glorious achievement, "The Sikh religion might be described, not inaccurately, as a vision of this Hindu-Muslim common ground. To have discovered and embraced the deep harmony underlying the historic Hindu-Muslim discord has been a noble spiritual triumph, the Sikhs may well be proud of their religion's ethos and origin." 42

6

There is nothing hyperbolical or flattering, therefore, in what Kurt Leidecker said in 1961, while addressing the Sikhs of America on the occasion of their founder's birth anniversary, "It is my belief that only India could have produced the Sikh and only Bharata could have given birth to Guru Nanak. What other country provided conditions such as permitted this great leader to be what he was and the Sikh community to practise what they believed? Could the West have played host to either?

Let us scan the cultural and political history of Europe and the time of the revered Guru Nanak. This is, let us briefly survey the Europe of the period AD 1469 to 1539. We can leave America out of this for the moment because it was only being discovered in 1492 India's history, likewise, was edging forward from crisis to crisis owing to greedy hands stretching out towards her riches. But one of the brightest spots in that age, which gave us a Kabir, was doubtless the birth of Guru Nanak at Nankana Sahib in the Punjab Europe may have painted well, printed well, translated well, sailed the seas well, and conquered and colonized well, but it was Guru Nanak who dreamed of universal brotherhood and sang his song of unity of all faiths to the accompaniment of his minstrel Mardana. His garments, too, betrayed his universal outlook as A Christina Albers put it in verse:

But why that motley dress the Master weareth,
Half of the Hindu, half of Muslim Type?
It was to show that he was both or neither.
The Truth Eternal does not rest on dress.

No Goan adventure was needed to introduce into India the concept of the Fatherhood of God. " Ek Pita ekas ke hum barik, tu mera gurhai " 43 , i.e., `there is only one Father of us all, and we are all His children', said the great Guru and proclaimed it far and wide till it became the basic principle guiding your conduct to this day and wherever you are in your homeland, in Singapore, Hong Kong or in America That is not only your stand; that you recognize as your obligation. At it is well in a world in which all values, even primary ones, are being assailed."

Regarding Guru Nanak's emphasis on the worth, liberty and dignity of man and woman, Leidecker observed, "Freedom-loving America also is glad that Guru Nanak and you, his followers, recognize the true value and worth of man not merely in the abolition of slavery and untouchability and in extolling the virtues of the good Samaritan, but in independence of thinking. The contribution of Sikhism to the elimination of caste so vigorously pursued by India today, can never be forgotten by your countrymen nor by the world. One saying by Guru Nanak to which hearts in East and West are surely attuned is that `Nobody is without some worth. How can you call woman inferior when it is she who gives birth to great men?" 44 Each human being, even the lowliest, has some worth, and you Sikhs have demonstrated that in innumerable instances in the past."

Drawing their attention to the Divine Preceptor's views on the dignity of labour, altruistic attribute and democratic practices, he explained, "To earn one's livelihood honestly, said Guru Nanak, is the source of happiness, and the right way consists in practicing non-injury and sharing with others. 45 Democracy, thus, is natural to you Sikhs. Your wealthy eat with the poor, you wait on him who may work for you. In humility and chivalry you are demonstrating in your quiet way the finest characteristic of man. In the new world that is shaping, you, therefore, will be contributing the valuable ancient heritage of Guru Nanak. It would, thus, seem impossible that a Sikh grounded deeply in the spiritual nature of his creed, would not be an ardent defender of democracy and the values which a free world cherishes. With your battle-cry, Sat Sri Akal (;fs ;qh nekb), you will never be found on the side of the godless. Our hope for a better future is made brighter by virtue of Guru Nanak, whose birth you have given me the privilege to celebrate with you."

Referring also to the Master's stress on the qualities of fearlessness, selfless service and sacrifice, he concluded: "We in America often speak of freedom from fear, but expect that freedom to come to us without, from improvements in the social order of favourable economic conditions. The Sikh Gurus, inspired by and in the spirit of the first one, Guru Nanak, looked within for stamina, and have prompted you to do the utmost in heroic deeds of valour and even more heroic sufferings of martyrdom which are inscribed in gold on the glorious pages of India's history, from Guru Arjun's tortures to the massacre at Amritsar. "Death is the privilege of the brave, provided they die for a worthy cause." 46 said Guru Nanak. Indeed, a country is well off that can boast of men who for the sake of their fellow-men, not necessarily their co-religionists or compatriots, will fight and lay down their lives because they espouse a worthy cause. As Guru Tegh Bahadur, or was it Guru Gobind Singh, said: sir dadam, magar sir-e-khuda na dadam, " 47 i.e., `he gave his own head, yet did not relinquish what Khuda (i.e., God) entrusted him with.' Hence, Rabindranath Tagore, in his jana-gana-mana-adhinayak , did not forget among those gathered round the throne of the Dispenser of India's destiny, you Sikhs, Vijaya Guru Nanak." 48

Keeping all that and much more in view, Bradshaw has acclaimed the religion founded by Guru Nanak as "the Faith of the New Age" and has stated unambiguously: "Sikhism is a universal world religion with a message for all men It is the summum bonum for the modern man. It completely supplants and fulfils all the former dispensations of the older religions The other religions contain Truth, but Sikhism contains the complete Truth. The older faiths were good in their days; but that is now in the past, and we are living in the dispensation of Guru Nanak. Just as we appreciate the discoveries and convenience of the modern living and do not want to exchange our modern jet airliners, automobiles and electricity for the horse-drawn carriages and candles of the past, so do we not want to exchange the New Age Faith of Guru Nanak for any of the Old Age religions and their antiquated philosophies. The Sikh faith is the universal religion for the present space age. The Sikh religion is truly the answer to the problems of the modern man." 49

This is also so because this most modern world religion embodies the universal spirit of altruism, liberalism and tolerance to such an extent that its followers seek blessings for the peace, prosperity and welfare of everyone _ irrespective of his caste, creed, colour, country or calling _ in their daily personal as well as congregational prayer to God, concluding the same with the following couplet:

nwnk nwm cVdI klw, qyry Bwxy srbq dw Blw ..

Says Nanak:

May Your Name, Your glory, O God!
Be ever in ascendence!
May the whole humanity be blessed with peace
and prosperity in Your will, by Your grace
. 50

There lies, in fact, the greatness and distinctiveness of Guru Nanak's contribution to human peace and prosperity, to the welfare of man and woman for all times to come.

~~~

References and notes

1. The choosing and formal installation of Angad was the first step in the process which issued in the founding of the Khalsa, and ultimately in the emergence of a Sikh Nation." (McLeod , Guru Nanak and the Sikh Religion , Oxford, 1968, p. 143.
2. Puran Singh (Prof), The Book of the Ten Masters , London, 1926, p 29
3. Fancifully derived from the Persian Ang-i-Khud, that is part of his own body, his oneself.
4. Its use implied and maintained, most prudently and effectively, the Master's supreme position as well as continuity of his mission, lasting value of his message and continuing influence of his personality and prophetship.
5. Narang, Gokal Chand, Transformation of Sikhism , Lahore, 1912, 2 nd edition _ 1945, p. 1.
6. Guru Nanak and Sikh Religion , op. cit., pp. 231-232
7. "There is no doubt that in his life-time, Nanak saved millions of human beings from committing sins and indulging in worldly vices", Sinha S N in Guru Nanak , edited by Gyan Singh & published by the Publication Division, New Delhi, 1969, p xiii.
8. Cust, R N, Pictures of Indian Life , London, 1881, p 194
9. Arjun Dev, Guru (ed.), Guru Granth Sahib, Amritsar, 1604, Raga Prabhati, M 1, p 1329:
jqu squ cwvl dieAw kxk kir pRwpiq pwqI Dwnu ]
dUDu krmu sMqoKu GIau kir AYsw mWgau dwnu ]
iKmw DIrju kir gaU lvyrI shjy bCrw KIru pIAY ]
isPiq srm kw kpVw mWgau hir gux nwnk rvqu rhY ] 

10. Arjun Dev, Guru (ed.) Guru Granth Sahib, op. cit, Raga Suhi, M 1, p 766: pihry ptMbr kir AfMbr Awpxw ipVu mlIAY ]
11. Ibid., op. cit., Raga Gauri, M 1, p 223: BY ivc rhY su inrBau hoie ]
12. Ibid., op. cit., M. 1. p. 151:
fir Gru Gir fru fir fru jwie ] so fru kyhw ijqu fir fru pwie ]
quDu ibnu dUjI nwhI jwie ] jo ikCu vrqY sB qyrI rjwie ] 
frIAY jy fru hovY horu ] fir fir frxw mn kw soru ]
  page 151
13. Ibid., op. cit., Varan Te Vadhik , M 1, st. 20, p 1412:
jau qau pRym Kylx kw cwau ] isru Dir qlI glI myrI Awau ]
iequ mwrig pYru DrIjY ] isru dIjY kwix n kIjY ] 

14. Ibid., Raga Maru, M. V, p. 1002:
PUto AWfw Brm kw mnih BieE prgwsu ]
kwtI byrI pgh qy guir kInI bMid Klwsu ]

15. Cunnihgham, J D, A History of the Sikhs from the Origin of the Nation to the Battles of Sutlej , London, 1849, op. cit., p. 48
16. Bhalla, Gurdas Bhai, Varan , Amritsar, 1604 c., Var 1, st. 27:
siqguru nwnk pRgitAw imtI DMuDu, jig cwnxu hoAw ]
17. Trilochan Singh Guru Nanak's Religion: A Comparative Study of Religions , New Delhi, 1969, p 5
18. Arjun Dev, Guru, Guru Granth Sahib, op. cit., Slok Varan te Vadheek , M. 1, no 24, p 1412: mwxU GlY auTI clY ] swdu nwhI ievyhI glY] 
19. Also rendered as: He who lives in agony, whatever he eats is illegitimate. Ibid., Raga Majh , M 1., p 142: jy jIvY piq lQI jwie ] sBu hrwmu jyqw ikCu Kwie ]
20. Ibid., Rag Asa , M 1., p 417; Raga Tilanga , M 1, p 722, Raga Asa, M 1, p 360.
21. Ibid., Raga Dhanasri , M 1, p 663; Raga Basant , M 1, p 1911, Raga Asa , pp 471-72.
22. Arjun Dev Guru, Granth Sahib, op. cit., Raga Ramkali, M 1, p 903: kil klvwlI srw inbyVI kwjI ik®snw hoAw ]
23. Arjun Dev Guru, Granth Sahib, op. cit., Raga Tilang, M 1, p 722:
pwp kI jM\ lY kwblhu DwieAw jorI mMgY dwnu vy lwlo ]
srmu Drmu duie Cip Kloey kUVu iPrY prDwnu vy lwlo ]

24. Ibid., Raga Ramkali , M 1, p 903:
kil prvwxu kqyb kurwxu ] poQI pMifq rhy purwx ] nwnk nwau BieAw rhmwxu ]
25. Transformation of Sikhism , op. cit., ist ed., p 12; 2 nd ed., pp 40-41
26. Banerjee, in his " Introduction ' to Guru Nanak's Moral Code by Shan, Harnam Singh, Chandigarh _ 1969, p 24
27. Toynbee, Prof Arnold, East of West, London _ 1958; quoted by Kapur Singh in Contributions of Guru Nanak , ed. by Shan, Harnam Singh, Chandigarh _ 1976, p 25
28. Harrison, Frederic, National and Social Problems , London, 1908, pp 461-62:
29. Guru Granth Sahib, op. cit., Raga Dhanasri , M 1, p 661
sic ismirAY hovY prgwsu ] qw qy ibiKAw mih rhY audwsu ]
siqgur kI AYsI vifAweI ] puqR klqR ivcy giq pweI ]

30. McLeod, W H, The Evolution of the Sikh Community , Delhi, 1975, pp 5-7.
31. Guru Granth Sahib, op.cit., Raga Asa, M 2, p 463: iehu jgu scY kI hY koTVI scy kw ivic vwsu ]
32. Ibid, Rag Dhanasri , M 1, p 661: jb lgu dunIAw rhIAY nwnk ikCu suxIAY ikCu khIAY ]
33. Daljeet Singh, Five Gifts of the Gurus , Patiala, 1994, pp. 2-3
34. Guru Granth Sahib, op. cit., Raga Siri , m 1, p 84: kudriq kir kY visAw soie ]
35. Ibid., Raga Sorath , M 1, p 597: Gt Gt AMqir bRhmu lukwieAw Git Git joiq sbweI ]
36. Ibid., Raga Asa , M 1, p 394: so pRBU dUir nwih pRBU qUM hY ]
37. Field, Dorothy, The Religion of the Sikhs , London, 1914, pp 34-35.
38. Gurdas (Bhai), Varan , op. cit., nep. 1, st. 23, 24, 27 : kil qwrix guru nwnk AwieAw [ciVAw soDix Driq lukweI [jwihr pIr jgq guru bwbw [
39. Ibid, Var No 1, st 45: mwirAw iskw jgq ivc nwnk inrml pMQ clwieAw [
40. Talib, Gurbachan Singh, Guru Nanak: His Personality and Vision , Delhi, 1969, pp. xvi-xviii.
41. Majumdar, R.C., in The History and Culture of the Indian People , Vol. VI, Bombay - 1960, 2 nd ed, 1967, p 569.
42. Toynbee, Arnold in his ` Foreword ' to UNESCO's Selections from the Sacred Writings of the Sikhs , London, 1960, p 10
43. J/e fgsk J/e; e/ jw pkfoe, Guru Granth Sahib, op.cit., Raga Sorath , M. V, p 611
44. ;' feT[ wzdk nkyhn? fis izwfj okikB . Ibid, Raga Asa , M I, p 473.
45. xkfb ykfJ feS[ jEj[ d/fJ BkBe okj[ gSkDfj ;/fJ . Ibid., Raga Sarang , M. I, p. 1245
46. Guru Granth Sahib, op cit., Rag Wadhans, M 1, pp 579-80 : woD[ w[D;k ;{fonk je[ j?, i' j'fJ wofB gotkd' ..
47. Guru Gobind Singh's own verse, in original, reads as follows: ;h;[ dhnk, go f;oo[ B dhnk .. (Sri Dasam Granth, Bachitar Natak ', Anandpur Sahib - 1961.
48. Leidecker, Kurt F., Guru Nanak in The Sikh Review , Calcutta December - 1961, pp 42-45.
49. Bradshaw, H L., The Sikh Review , Calcutta, Singh, Gurbakhsh, Sikhism : Universal Message, Richardson - 1991, p 8
50. Ardas, that is, the Sikh Prayer, its concluding verse.

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