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Gurdwaras : Past, Present and Future

Sher Singh Sher*

The Guru, Guru Granth Sahib, and the gurdwara are the roots of the plant of the Sikh faith, Sikhs are its branches and their deeds are its fruits. In Sikhology, gurdwara is a place where the Guru as well as his Sikhs are present. The gurdwara is the source fount of Sikhs from where they have the sight of their Guru — his teachings Gursikhi or Gurmat or Gur Sikhiya or Gurbachan, Gurbani, Gurshabad or Gurwaak, and become Gursikhs or Gurmukhs. Hence, the gurdwara is not only the cradle of the Sikhs, but also the source of their spiritual nourishment, social strength and political ideal to guide their politics and their political power to keep it on the right path, so that they may remain under the fear of the Fearless — Nirbhau, and remain fraternal to all under the All-Loving — Nirvair Satnaam or Waheguru.

This Seminar has been held to discuss Gurdwara Legislation. I have felt that gurdwara precedes legislation, and so it is necessary to first deal with the Gurdwara and the products which radiate from it, thus treating the roots and branches, and leaving the legislation aspect along with Personal Law to the judicial pomologists. Only a separate Personal Sikh Law can protect the way of life of the Khalsa Panth, which doctrinally has nothing to do with Hinduwat as followers of monotheism wahdat prast which is entirely different from the polytheism of Hinduism ridden by countless gods and goddesses, besides idolatry, zoolatry, plantolatry, solar worship, lunar worship, and erotically or sexually speaking genitolatry of both males and females. On top of all this comes the Varan-ashram or Hindu caste system beginning from the tenth Mandala of the Rigveda. The name of the Mandala is Purusha — the creation of man from the body of Brahma — Brahmin from the mouth of Brahma and then the other three from his arms, belly and the feet in the descending order of their respective social status, giving birth to untouchability and degradation of millions and millions of people of India in addition to dividing and weakening India, and thus razing the national edifice to the ground, brick by brick.

The Sikh faith, the basic source of which is the gurdwara under the worship of one and only One God — Ik Onkar — the God equally of all animate beings Sabhna jeeaan ka1 (of all living beings), the equality of Homo sapiens, Manas ki jaat sabh eko pahchaanbo2 (Recognise the human race as one). The Khalsa faith — the pure faith purifies and purges society of its dirt of casteism or jaatiwaad. Again in the gurdwara none can question or hate any human being on the basis of his or her birth or caste.

Sikhism unites human beings, whereas Hinduism divides. Sikhism is a universal religion, whereas Hinduism is a divisive and dehumanising technique or contrivance of Brahminism, as no scholar of intellectual integrity has ever been able to define Hinduism as a ‘religion’. Seeing the degrading and dividing design of Hinduism, Dr Ambedkar cried out with a painful heart and wrote, looking at the pitiable plight of the people to which he belonged, of which millions were treated by the Hindus as sub-human creatures : “The existence of these classes is an abomination. The Hindu civilization gauged in the light of these social products, could hardly be called civilization. It is a diabolical contrivance to suppress and enslave humanity. Its proper name would be infamy.3”

A Hindu is Hinduised or accepted as a Hindu in Brahminical Hindu society after being tonsured, but the Sikh initiation strictly commands never to cut hair or harm them in anyway. The rituals and rites of the life cycles of Hindus and Sikhs are also different. A gurdwara and a Hindu temple are different in concept and the way of worship, as in a Hindu temple the Hindu votaries worship idols, but in a gurdwara Guru Granth Sahib — God’s Word is worshipped. Secondly, none can discriminate against any person whatever he or she is, but there are numerous Hindu temples where the Shudras are not allowed to enter. The late Prime Minister, Mrs. Indira Gandhi was not allowed by the Jagat Guru to visit the temple of Jagan Nath at Puri in Orissa, because, in spite of being the daughter of a Brahmin father and mother, she had lost her Hindu caste after marrying Mr. Feroze Gandhi, a Parsi.

Seen in this light, is it not an aggression and high-handedness, socio-religious, political and judicial, to govern Sikhs through Hindu Law ? Sikhs do duly deserve and badly need a separate Sikh Personal Law, to practise, preserve and protect their faith and its niyara or distinct way of life. I leave this problem here, leaving it to be discussed by the lawyers and jurists and go ahead to discuss the topic named in the wording of my paper as Gurdwaras : Past, Present and Future.

The Past
I talked of roots in the very beginning of this paper. Root is a very important word, and even in the basic formula of Sikh religion, in its name comes the word ‘Mool’ which means ‘Root’, and for the entirety of this mantra or formula the term ‘Mool Mantra’ (The Root Formula) is used which means that this attributive description of God is the root of Sikh religion, and the holy Guru Granth Sahib is its exposition or exegesis.

Now coming to the word ‘gurdwara’ it means ‘the house of the Guru’ or ‘the door of the Guru’. The word ‘Guru’ precedes the word ‘dwara’, dwara may be anywhere. It is the word ‘Guru’ which elevates its sense and sanctity. Why does a Sikh go to a gurdwara ? To become a Gursikh or a Gurmukh. A Sikh scholar4 has done a very commendable work in two large volumes, totally covering 2,340 pages, in which he has given the particulars of important words used in Guru Granth Sahib. He has, however, not made any count of the words, as to how many times they have been used in Guru Granth Sahib. I have counted and concluded that the word ‘Gurmukh’ is used most in Guru Granth Sahib, 1,302 times.5 Bhai Gurdas has also used the word ‘Gurmukh’6 many times, more than any other allied word like ‘Sikh’ and ‘Gursikh’. Bhai Gurdas Singh7 has also used the word ‘Gurmukh’ several times.

The terms connected with ‘Guru’ are used in Guru Granth Sahib as follows : ‘Gursikh’ 62 times, ‘Gurbachan’ 47 times, ‘Gurmat’ 377 times, ‘Gurbani’ 33 times and ‘gurdwara’ 5 times and ‘Gur’ with sihari with raara 505 times and ‘Gur’ with no matra to raara — raara mukta is used more than 2,300 times. Hence, the word ‘Gurmukh’ is second in its frequency in the Guru Granth Sahib used for 1,302 times. There may be some disparity in my counting of the words quoted above.

Space does not allow me to quote the actual text of Gurbani to give the qualities of a Gurmukh, but I hope that generally Sikhs know them, though to become one is the greatest social, religious and spiritual achievement in Sikh faith.

Some other terms and their frequency in addition to those already mentioned are : ‘Sikh’ with no matra with khakha 74 times, ‘Sikh’ with sihari with khakha 5 times, ‘Sikhi’ 20 times, ‘Kirtan’ 84 times, ‘Kirat’ 3 times, ‘Katha’ 96 times, ‘Gurshabd’ 170 times, ‘Gurparsaad’ 75 times and ‘Gurprsaad’ (raraa paireen) 5 times, ‘Gurmantar’ 5 times and ‘Gurmant’ 3 times.

Primarily, a gurdwara is a resort or shelter for the forlorn and the wayfarer; a provident of food to the needy and hungry; a sanctuary of sympathy to the suffering, sad, ailing and the inflicted ones; a place where animosities are obviated and affectionate friendships are forged; where inequality of high and low, rich and poor, black, brown, yellow or white is levelled; where God’s unicity and man’s unitive fraternity are given away; where kirtan is sung; where the holy word of the Guru is recited and expounded, where the inspiring and instructive history of religion and the losses and gains, sorrows and sunshines of the nation are remembered; where the devotees offer their donations to feed, clothe and shelter the lonely, needy and helpless strangers; where Guru Granth Sahib is read and worshipped and where the welfare of all — sarbat da bhala, is prayed for and where the Guru’s golak is filled by the donations of the rich, the poor, the middle class and where even the petty or meagre contribution of the ones who toil and earn their livelihood by their sweat, is accepted by God and the Guru with the highest grace. But at present the Guru’s golak (the mouth of the poor) is going into the bellies of the members of the management committees, and due to the golak or till, fights, litigation and factions are common.

It is the gurdwara which manifests the dignity and strength of the Sikhs, and their Jaikara, Boley so Nihal is the expression of mettle and might all at the feet of the Master. Gurdwara Sahib is an essential part of the life of a Gursikh and it is the Guru who is the common cause of the Sikh brotherhood and other social ties :

“So Sikh sakha bandhap hai bhai
Je Gur ke bhaney vich aawai”8

Gurmukh and Gursevak have been described together, as they go to the shelter of their Guru :

“Gurmukh janam skartha; Gursikh mil sarneen aiya”9
“The birth of a Gurmukh is fruitful,
Who seeks the refuge of the Guru along with a Gursikh.”

Gurbani describes how the day of a Gursikh begins as it is recorded in the hymn, the first line of which begins with the words,

“Gur Satgur ka jo Sikh akhae so bhalke uth Harinam dhiyawai....”
“Whoever is called a Sikh of the Guru,
rises early in the morning and meditates on God.”

The devout Sikhs have a special, sacred and sanctified niche for the gurdwara in their hearts. For its freedom, honour and purity they have given sacrifices unsurpassed in the history of world religions.

The purity of heart, innocence of life style, and unshakable faith are most precious and wanted things for a gurdwara, and not hypocrisy and deceptive marks of personalities, as a poet has said :

“The great door sighs, it opens, and a child,
Enters the church and kneels in the front pew.
The Maker of the universe has smiled,
He made the church for this one interview.”10

A very common, rather ubiquitous trend is rampant amongst Sikhs at present : to make the gurdwara of marble. It is good, but it is wrong to think that with this the gurdwara has been completed or according to some people perfected. This belief is the worst enemy of the Sikh faith. The gurdwara’s construction in spirit is to go on, on and on for ever, “For, the church is still a sort of ideal challenge to the faithful, rather than an already finished institution — a call upon me is for a heavenly quest rather than a present possession of humanity. ‘Create me’ this is the word that the church viewed as ideal addresses to mankind.”11

Here I remember an incident of Islamic Hadis. Once somebody questioned prophet Mohammed : “Are you greater than the Holy Qur'an and the mosque, or are they greater than you ? He answered, ‘I am greater than the Qur'an as it has descended from Heaven for my sake, but the Mosque is greater than I because I go to it to say my prayer, and it does not come to me’.”

While talking of the past of the gurdwara it may be mentioned that first of all it was called dharmsal as we read, “Ghar ghar andar dharmsal hovey keertan sada wasoa”12 (There shall be a dharmsal in every house, where the benedictory and joy-giving holy music will be recited like the exultation of celebration of Vaisakhi). The first dharmsal in Sikh history was established in the house of a thug or a deceiver or man-killer. Hence, the very basic purpose of Guru and gurdwara should be understood to be the uplift of fallen sinners and rectification of wrong-doers. This is what Guru Nanak Dev did in the case of transforming the life of a deceiver and killer of innocent wayfarers to his Sikh and then a saintly man serving mankind instead of annihilating them. It seems that the word ‘gurdwara’ came into use after Guru Arjun Dev, the fifth Guru of the Sikhs, installed the Holy Granth Sahib in Sri Harimandar Sahib, Amritsar in 1604. It may be pointed out that coincidentally King James revised the English translation of the Bible, acknowledged to be most authentic, also in 1604.

It may be noted that a true dharmsal is meant for the service of mankind, without any vanity but surcharged with humility :

“Mein baddhi such dharmsal hai, Gur sikhan ladha bhal kai
Peir dhowa pakha pherda tis niv niv lagga pae jio.”13

“I have established the true dharmsal. The Sikhs of the Guru reached for it and found it. Anybody who fans the congregations, washes their feet, I touch his feet with all humility.”

Bhai Kahan Singh Nabha14 has rightly commented that the real dharmsal is the one in which love is given to all, and the Holy Word is preached, but the one opposed to this mission, where some people think it to be their personal property, is a Paapshala — the abode of sin.

Some people say that such and such battles of Sikhs took place in the gurdwaras which became the cause of their sacrilege and profanation. Of course, there are many historic gurdwaras where the Sikhs fought battles against the invading enemies, but the people who talk like this must know that any attack on anything pertaining to the faith of the Khalsa, becomes a life and death question for them to defend their faith, themselves and all other objects belonging to them.

The Sikhs came upon the scene of Indian history very late, but ever since the inception of their faith they were given the inspiring lesson of :

“Je jeevaiey patt lathi jae,
Sabh haram jeta kichch khai.”15

“If one is dishonoured while alive,
Whatever he eats is illegitimate and impious.”

Again we read about the adoption of a fearless life, unselfish and sacrificial :

“Je tau prem khelan ka chao,
Sir dhar tali gali meri aao,
It marg peir dhareejai
Sir deejai kaan na keejai.”16

“If you have the fondling glee of love,
Then come to my street with your head on your palm.
If you want to tread this path, then do not hesitate to sacrifice your head.”

It was only Guru Nanak Dev in India who said about that invader, “Paap ki janj lai kablon dhaiya jori mangey daan ve Lalo.”17 (O, Lalo Babar has marched from Kabul with a sinful marriage party, i.e., army, and forcibly demands the gifts of daughters as well as dowry).

The most famous invasion of Mahmood Ghazanavi is that of plunder and destruction of the temple of Somnath, and the multitudes of gods of Hindus. How did the Hindus behave at the time of the invasion of that temple ? Read what Jawaharlal Nehru writes about it, “Year after year he raided India and sacked and killed and took away with him vast treasure and large number of captives. Altogether he made seventeen raids and only one of these into Kashmir was a failure. The others were successful and he became a terror, all over the North. He went as far South as Patliputra, Mathura and Somnath. From Thaneshwara, he took away, it is said, 2,000,000 captives and vast wealth. But it was in Somnath that he got the most treasure. For this was one of the great temples, and offerings of centuries had accumulated there. It is said that thousands of people took refuge in the temple when Mahmood approached, in the hope that a miracle would happen and the god they worshipped would protect them. But miracles seldom happen, except in the imagination of the faithful, and the temple was broken and looted by Mahmood and 50,000 people perished waiting for the miracle which did not happen.”18 Nehru pays his tribute to Gazanavi, “He was a brilliant General and a fine cavalry leader.”19 Ahmadshah Abdali attacked Sri Harimandar Sahib, Amritsar, with a force of 30,000. Then only 30 Sikhs were present in this holiest of holy Sikh shrines, led by Sardar Gurbakhsh Singh. In turn, one by one, they came out and fought with the swarms of Abdali’s soldiers. All of them embraced martyrdom. Their memorial stands behind Sri Akal Takht Sahib. Why did not any brilliant Hindu General fight against Mahmood Ghazanavi for the sake of his faith, temple, the idol of Somnath; for the people of India, who were being plundered, killed and being taken away as slaves like sheep and goats ?

Sikhs have never let their gurdwaras be desecrated and destroyed. There are many gurdwaras in which, or around which, fighting took place. But the forts of Anandgarh at Sri Anandpur Sahib, the holy gurdwara of Muktsar and the Golden Temple, Amritsar are most renowned for battles protecting the Sikh faith and its shrines. Sikhs always resist the enemy. Their last and most recent resistance was during the Indian Army’s invasion, Operation Blue Star, in June, 1984. The bravery of a handful combatants defending the Golden Temple, Akal Takht and the immediate surrounding, is a saga of the highest order of gallantry displayed by Sikhs. Even the chief of the invading Army, General Kuldip Singh Brar, a clean-shaven, patit or apostate himself, could not help praising their bravery and spirit of sacrifice.

The history of the Akali movement to emancipate the gurdwaras from the corrupt mahants supported by the British rulers of India, is simply a story of peerless inspiration, endurance, strength, stamina and sacrifices, as described in the works of Teja Singh20, Jhabalia21, Sahni22, Fox23, Indian Congress24, Rai25, Milkha Singh Nijhar26, Ganda Singh27, Josh28, Narain Singh29, Sunder Singh Babbar30, Jathedar Labh Singh Babbar Akali31, Giani Pratap Singh32, Peace33, Giani Lall Singh34, Bhagat Lachchhman Singh35 and Sher36.

The period of the Akali movement (1920-1925) is the glorious period of Sikh history of the twentieth century. The Gurdwaras Act as suited the British rulers was framed in 1925, and the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee came into existence. The Akalis then were ideal Sikhs and inspiring personalities, intoxicated with selfless service and spirit of sacrifice. Many of those who participated in the Akali movement were not in favour of the Gurdwaras Act, and even at its formulation some agitators refused to come out of jails, because they held that the Act must be made without state interference and a hand of the Government in it. But some of them, mostly the educated section, accepted it including those flaws detrimental to Sikh personal religious affairs, which are a great curb on the Sikhs, and which the Sikh jurists have come to discuss in order to formulate a new gurdwara legislation. The past of the gurdwaras should be left with the remark that in the past in most cases, the gurdwara buildings were not so beautiful, but the hearts of the Sikhs were clean and committed to the Sikh faith in letter and spirit.

The Present
Any individual or community without introspection and self assessment or a patient who does not disclose his / her serious disease, invites death. So, we must confess with all candour that the gurdwaras, have been built with marble, that may be a credit and cause of joy, but the pity is that the more the gurdwara buildings are becoming beautiful the more the hearts of the Sikhs are becoming ugly, losing the real and divine beauty of spirit and mind. The devotion and donations of the devotees are increasing day by day, but the true devotion of the members of the Gurdwara Management Committees are far more dedicated to the golak or the till or charity-money-box, coffer or bursary, for the possession of which physical strifes and filthy language are used right within the gurdwaras. Litigations dance in the law courts and often the party dominant on the management body of the gurdwara does not want to leave the golak like a leech due to which factions are created and many anti-Guru, anti-gurdwara, anti-Gurmat, anti-Gursikhi and anti-Sikh-unity incidents take place. The reason is that the devotion of the Sikhs is becoming dimmer and dimmer day by day.

The true spirit of sewa or service is almost absent. Pursuit of mammon is the motivating force for the infighting and many disputes are often for control of the golak. A systematic study will prove that the majority of the granthis are almost illiterate, without any study of Sikhism or other religions, and know only how to read the holy Gurbani of the Sikh scripture like a school child. Hence, they should be equipped with knowledge of different aspects of Sikhism as well as that of other faiths so that they can satisfactorily deal with queries from interested people.

The problem is that the people dope the sangat — the simple, sincere and faithful congregations repeatedly by saying : “Jee asaan te sangat di sewa karni hai, sachey dilon sewak ban ke. Buss, tuhadi vote hi milani chahidi ae.” (Respected ones, we have to serve the congregations, becoming the true servitors. Only your vote and co-operation are needed). The people believe and support them. But after being elected they do not become sewadars but self-centred, self-aggrandizers suffering from megalomania and cling to power as a lizard does to the ceiling. Gurbani exhorts the true sewak — a voluntary unselfish servant or server, “So sewak har aakhiyai jo Har rakhai urdhar. Man tan sauupei aagai dharey haumain vichon maar”37 (Only he should be called the servant of God who remembers Him. He dedicates his mind and body to Him, crushing his ego).

A true sewak obeys the Will of God and does not grudge the position or condition in which He keeps him :
“Je raj bahaley taan Har ghulam ghasi. Jan Nanak Har ka das hai Har ki wadiyaee.”38

“If God enthrones me, O Lord I will remain in the position of a grass-cutter to utter your Name.
Nanak is your servant — this all is Your greatness.”

A true sewak puts an end to his ego like a living-dead person, “Murda hoe mureed na gullen howna, Sabat sidak shaheed bharom bhau khowna.”39 (The disciple-servant has to become like an ego-less dead body, but it cannot be done with mere words. One has to cultivate patience and contentment ending superstition, doubt or fear).

The present situation is alarming. Generally, the donations of the aristocrat Sikh families have become ostentatious or showy, devoid of humility. They mostly do it to spread their largess of wealth instead of doing service to their faith, its followers and humanity at large, by broadcasting their names and castes through posters, Ardas and getting their names carved on walls and marble slabs; loving the glorification of their names more than the glorification of the Guru-Granth-Panth. The real donation or daan is gupt-daan and not the daan with the beat of the drum. A Biblical tenet to spiritually donate something is appropriate to mention here : “The left hand should not know what the right hand gives.” The name of donors are not found written on the walls or marble slabs in any church or mosque, but in the present Sikh society the display of donation is on increase. Millions of Sikhs lavishly donate money and material to the gurdwaras, but do not live religion. As it is said, “Men will wrangle for religion, write for it, fight for it, die for it, anything, but live for it.”40

In most well-to-do families, the Sikh Rehat Behat, the Sikh way of life or Sikhi-Jiwan-jaach is vanishing as they believe and even assert to others that they are going up in society. They must realise, “A man who puts aside his religion because he is going up in society, is like one taking off his shoes because he is about to walk on thorns.”41

Sikhism is being distorted, debased and deformed by the mushroom growth of deras of saadhs or so-called sants, who began their luxurious, lucrative, designs under the auspices of the Congress Government. And not only simpleton people are seen prostrating at their feet, even educated people and ministers are not free from this blasphemous act. Every well-founded religion has three basics — founder, scripture and central place of pilgrimage and inspiration. The policy of the Sikh Saadhdom is to divide the Sikhs in as many sects or sections as possible and then ultimately Sikhs will be divided and debilitated socially, as well as spiritually, and will be weaned away from their darshan-ishnan of Amritsar, which is their source of inspiration and resurrecting force of cohesion.

The Future
Sikhs have got to be up and doing more enlightened missionary work to awaken the masses against the sadho-state onslaught on the distinct Sikh identity. Apostasy is increasing day by day amongst the youth. And if you ask a clean-shaven young Sikh why he has shaven or trimmed his facial hair, he readily replies, “Ghar di khetiae jadon marzi rakh laee jadon jee keeta cut laee. (It is my personal crop, whenever I wish, I keep it and whenever I wish otherwise, I cut it).”

Much is being talked and written about the celebration of the tercentenary of the Khalsa and accomplishing Khalsa initiation amongst the Sikh youth, particularly those in the rural areas. I think that the increasing bhayyawaad in Punjab, both in urban and rural areas will adversely affect the Sikhs in many ways in the near future, certainly affecting the gurdwaras which some day may become desolate and desultory places with shining marble structures but empty of devoted souls. One of the very forceful factors to damage the Sikh society, of which the gurdwara is the greatest amending force, is the indifference of the religious leaders, who spend much more time on political ‘make-and-break’ — ‘siyasi bhun tode’, than on truly missionary work, which is their basic and sacred duty and truly speaking the meaning of religion or dharm is duty. Pearl Buck has written, “We need to restore the full meaning of that old word ‘duty’. It is the other side of ‘rights’.”42

Sikhs will flourish in the future if they adhere to the spirit of Harimandar Sahib at Amritsar, the defence of which has cost them many lives and limbs. How inspiring it is, that in spite of Harimandar Sahib’s desecration and destruction three/four times in its history, devoted Sikhs have rebuilt it — every time with greater grandeur and elegance than before.

Waheguru ji ka Khalsa; Waheguru ji ki Fateh.

O Lord, Khalsa belongs to You and all victory is Your victory.


1. Guru Nanak Dev : Jap Pauri 5.
2. Guru Gobind Singh : Akal Ustat.
3. Dr B.R. Ambedkar : The Untouchable, Preface, Bombay, 1948.
4. Gurcharan Singh, M.A. : Aad Granth Shabd Anukrmani-ka 2 vols., Punjabi University, Patiala, 1971.
5. Ibid. pp. 565-71.
6. Bhai Gurdas Vaaran, Vaar 3-10, 13, 14, 16, Vaar 5-1, 2, 5-1.
Vaar 6 Pauri 1,7,12-14, 16, 18.
Vaar 8, Pauri 24, Vaar 11, pauri 5, 11.
Vaar 12 - pauri 1-6, Vaar 14, pauri 16, 17. Vaar 16, pauri 15; Vaar 18, pauris 17-23. Vaar 19, whole on Gurmukh. Vaar 20, whole on Gurmukh, GurSikh and kirt; Vaar 22, pauris 12, 18. Vaar 23, pauris 15, 18; Vaar 24, pauris 9, 11, 12, 16, 20, 21, 23. Vaar 25, pauri 2, Vaar 25, pauris 3, 8-14, 16, 18.
Vaar 26, pauris 8, 11, 12, 14, 18, 26.
Vaar 29, pauri 12; Vaar 30 — Gurmukh described in contrast with manmukh (proud and self-centred).
Vaar 38, about Gurmukh and GurSikh.
Vaar 39, pauri 1, Vaar 40, pauri 17.
7. Bhai Gurdas Singh : Vaar 41, pauri 3 (2 times) pauris 4-5 4 times.
8. Guru Arjan Dev, Sorath 3 (9)
9. Bhai Gurdas : Vaar 6, pauri 11.
10. Daniel Sargent : The Village Church. God’s Abuscude — The Macmillan Treasure of Relevant Quotations, p. 148, London, 1979.
11. John Rover : The Problem of Christianity — Ibid.
12. Bhai Gurdas : Vaar 1, pauri 27.
13. Guru Arjan Dev : Sri Raag.
14. Bhai Kahan Singh Nabha : Gurmat Martand, Vol. II, p. 604 (footnote no. 2).
15. Guru Nanak Dev : Vaar Majh, p. 142.
16. Ibid. : Salok Vaaran te Wadheek, p. 1412.
17. Ibid. : Raag Tilang, p. 722.
18. Jawaharlal Nehru : Glimpses of World History, p. 155, London, 1949.
19. Ibid.
20. Teja Singh : The Gurdwara Reform Movement and The Sikh Awakening, Lahore, 1922.
21. Gurbakhsh Singh Shamsher Jhabalia : Shaheedi Jiwan, 1938.
22. Sahni, Ruchi Ram : Struggle For Reform of Sikh Shrines, n.d.
23. Fox, Richard G. : Lions of the Punjab, 1987.
24. All India Congress Inquiry Report on Guru Ka Bagh, 1924.
25. Satya M. Rai : Punjabi Hevoic Tradition, 1978.
26. Milkha Singh Nijhar : Delhi, 1986.
27. Ganda Singh : Some Confidential Papers on the Akali Movement, (Edited), Amritsar, 1965.
28. Josh, Sohan Singh : My Tryst with Secularism, (Autobiography) 1991.
29. Narain Singh : Jathedar Bhai Kartar Singh Jhabbar, 1988, Mera Jiwan Pandh te Sahit Ruchi, (Autobiography), 1982 and Gurdwara Parbandhak Sudhar Lehar (1920-25), 1978.
30. Sunder Singh Babbar : Babbar Akali Lehar, 1995.
31. Jathedar Labh Singh Babbar Akali : Babbar Akali, (in poetry), 1960.
32. Giani Pratap Singh : Gurdwara Sudhar Arthaat Akali Lehar, 1951.
33. Peace, M.L.S. Kartar Singh Jhabbar : The Spearhead of Akali Movement, n.d.
34. Giani Lall Singh : Neeli Dastar Di Dastan, 1994.
35. Bhagat Lachchhman Singh : Autobiography, 1965 (Edited and Annotated).
36. Sher Singh Sher : Flame of Faith : The Child Martyr Darbara Singh; Bharosey Da Bhanbor (Pb), Amritsar, 1997.
37. Guru Amar Das : Sri Raag 3 (6), p. 28.
38. Guru Ram Das : Gauri 4(87), p. 166.
39. Bhai Gurdas : Vaar 3, pauri 18.
40. Colton : The New Dictionary of Thoughts, p. 585. Edited by Tryon Edwards, New York, 1995.
41. Cecil : Ibid.
42. Pearl Buck : To My Daughters, With Love.



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