NAAM IN SIKHISM
1. Every religion has its world-view on which are based its concepts about Reality, the place of man in the universe, ethics and human goals. All students of Sikhism know that the concept of Naam, is fundamental to the gospel of the Guru Granth and the entire structure of its theology. In fact, Sikhism has often been called the Naam Maarga or the way of Naam. It is in this context that we shall endeavour to trace the salient features and implications of this concept which, we believe, holds the key to the understanding of the message of the Sikh Gurus, their religious and social ideas, and their world-view.
2. At the outset, we should like to make one point clear. This is about the language and the various traditional terms used by the Sikh Gurus. Since they were conveying their message to the mass of the people, both Hindus and Muslims, with a view to evoking a response in the very depths of their hearts, they have, for obvious reasons, used in their hymns the then current words and symbols from Indian languages and Persian and Arabic languages. And yet, one thing is patent even from a cursory study of the Guru Granth that the Gurus have, as was essential for the proper understanding of a new gospel, made the meaning of each concept, symbol and term employed by them unambiguously clear. Many a time the meaning of such words is entirely their own. Accordingly, we have refrained from tracing the meaning of Naam to its traditional usage and background. In fact, such an exercise could be even misleading and wasteful We shall, therefore, base our arguments and inferences about Naam on the hymns in the Guru Granth and the accepted facts about the lives of the Sikh Gurus.
3. Let us now try broadly to indicate how Naam has been used in the Guru Granth where it appears in a majority of hymns. The Sikh Gurus have given the word Naam, a distinct and significant meaning which is far different from that of mere 'Name' or 'psychic factors' as understood in 'Naam-Roopa' in the traditional literature.1 The basic definition of Naam is contained in the Sukhmani and in some other quotations from the Guru Granth, given below:
(i) 'Naam sustains all regions and universes, all thought, knowledge and consciousness, all skies and stars, all forces and substances, all continents and spheres. Naam emancipates those who accept it in their heart. He, on whom is His Grace, is yoked to Naam and he reaches the highest state of development.'2
(ii) 'Naam is the Creator of everything. To be divorced from Naam is death.'3 'All is created by Naam.'4 'Naam gives form to everything and through Naam comes all Wisdom or Light.'5
(iii) 'Naam extends to all creation. There is no place or space where Naam is not.'6
(iv) Naam is the 'Nine Treasures' and Nectar (amrita). It permeates the body.'7
(v) 'Naam, the immaculate, is unfathomable, how can it be known ? Naam is within us, how to get to it ? It is Naam that works everywhere and permeates all space. The perfect Guru awakens your heart to the vision of Naam. It is by the Grace of God that one meets such an Enlightener.'8
4. From the above verses it is clear that the Gurus do not use the word Naam in any restrictive sense, of its being a psychic factor or mere consciousness, but refer to it as the Highest Power, creating, informing, supporting and working the entire creation. In short, Naam is the Reality, supporting and directing the created worlds or the entire cosmos. There are numerous verses in the Guru Granth where Naam and God have been described synonymously. Both, Naam and God have been mentioned as "the Creator of the Cosmos" as "the Sustainer of the Universe", as "permeating and informing all things, beings, space and interspace" as "the treasure of virtues values", as "the support of the supportless" as "the giver of Peace and bliss", as "eternal", "perfect" and "unfathomable", as the "Friend", "Master" and "Emancipator" of man. The highest state of man is mentioned as the one when he lives and works in tune with God or Naam, often called God's Naam. We, therefore, find that God and Naam, are real, eternal and unfathomable. The Sikh Gurus have repeatedly emphasized, as is also stated in the very opening verse of the Guru Granth, that God is one Ek Oamkaar, and no second entity, as in the case of the Sankhya system, is at all postulated. The Guru says, "My Lord is the only One. He is the only One, (understand) brother, He is the only One".9 This unambiguously brings out that God and Naam are one and the same, and the latter may be called the immanent or qualitative aspect of God, since God has been described both as unmanifest (nirguna) and manifest (sarguna).
5. In view of the above, we should define Naam as the Dynamic Immanence of God or the Reality sustaining and working the manifest world of force and form. It is on the basis of these fundamentals that we should like to trace and understand some important concepts and conclusions, ideas and institutions, trends and traditions in Sikhism, and its socio- religious way of life.
6. Naam and Cosmology: The Guru writes, "The Self-existent God manifested Himself into Naam. Second came the Creation of the Universe. He permeated it and reveals in His creation."10 "God created the world of life, He planted Naam in it, and made it the place for righteous action."11
7. Thus, according to the concept of Naam and the hymns quoted earlier in this regard, God created the world and in His immanent aspect, as Naam, is informing and working it. Only one entity, namely, God, is envisaged and the world, in time and space, is His creation, the same being supported and directed by Naam. Let us see if this cosmological view is also supported by other verses in the Guru Granth.
8. In the very opening verse of the Guru Granth, God is described as the Sole-One, His Naam as Real, Creator-Lord… Timeless Person, One that is not born, Self-existent12. The Gurus have clearly described at a number of places that there was a stage when the Transcendent God was by Himself; and it is later that He started His Creative Activity. In Sidh Gost, in answer to a question as to where was the Transcendent God before the stage of creation,13 Guru Nanak replied, "To think of the Transcendent Lord in that state is to enter the realm of wonder. Even at that stage of sunn (Void), He permeated all that Void."14 The Guru, in effect, means that to matters that are beyond the spacio-temporal world, it would be wrong to apply the spacio-temporallogic, and yet man knows of no other logic or language. Perforce, he has to be explained, howsoever inadequately or symbolically only in terms of that language. That is why the Guru has cautioned us against the pitfalls and inadequacy of human logic and language to comprehend the Timeless One. All the same, the Guru has mentioned the state when the Transcendent God was all by Himself and there was no creation. The Gurus say, "When there was no form in sight, how could there be good or bad actions? When God was in the Self-Absorbed state, there could be no enmity or conflict. When God was all by Himself, there could be no attachment or misunderstanding. Himself He starts the Creation. He is the Sole-Creator, there is no second One."15 "For millions of aeons the Timeless One was by Himself. There was no substance or space, no day or night '(i.e. no time), no stars or galaxies; God was in His Trance."16 "God was by Himself and there Was nothing else... There was no love or devotion, nor was His creative Power in operation...When He willed, He created the Universe."17 The same idea is expressed in these words, "When He willed, the creation appeared."18 Again, in answer to the question of the Yogis, "When there was no sign and no form, where was the Word (Logos) and how was He identified with Truth ?"19 The Guru replied, "When there was no form, no sign, no individuation, the Word in its Essence abided in the Transcendent God; when there was no earth, no sky, (Time or Space) the Lord permeated everything. All distinction, all forms, then abided in the Wondrous Word. No one is pure without Truth. Ineffable is this gospel."20
9. In short, the Gurus say that before He created Form, He was
Formless; before He was Immanent, He was Transcendent only; and
yet all immanence, expression, creativity, were inherent in Him and so
was His Word, in essence.
10. In the jap(u), where a picture of the realm of creativity is given, the Guru writes, "In the region of Troth is God where He perpetually creates and watches the universe with His benevolent eye, deliberating and directing according as He Wills."21 Further, it is stated, "In the region of Creativity (Karam) only God's Power or Force is at work."22 Again, "Of the region of construction or effort, the medium of expression is form. Here most fantastic forms are fashioned, including consciousness, perception, mind, intellect."23 Further still, "Innumerable creations are fashioned, myriads are the forms, myriads are the moons, suns, regions."24 These hymns also indicate how the process of creativity, or a becoming world started and is being sustained and directed by a benevolent God
11. In all the above quotations from the Guru Granth, the same idea is expressed, namely, that God is the Sole Entity; who in His Creative Urge has produced the Cosmos, which He, in His immanent aspect, Naam, is sustaining vigilantly and directing benevolently, according to His Will. In the created world no other entity, like prakriti in Sankhya and other dualistic systems, is assumed. While the world is Real and is directed by Immanent God, at no stage is the separate independent existence of matter accepted directly or by implication.
12. Metaphysical implication of Naam : We have seen that according to the concept of Naam and the hymns already quoted in this regard, God created Himself and Naam, and at the second place was created the universe. Further, that this universe is being sustained and directed by God as Naam or His Immanent aspect. This concept of God being the Sole Entity and being the Creator God (Karta Purakh) is so fundamental in the Sikh theology that it is mentioned in the very opening line (Mul Mantra) of the Guru Granth and in the beginning of almost every section and sub-section of it. Both the doctrine of Naam and the Mal Mantra clearly point out the theology of Sikhism being monotheistic. Let us, therefore, try to see whether this conclusion of ours is correct, and whether many of those hurriedly- begotten views about Sikhism being pantheistic, Vedantic, Sankhyic, Yogic or Buddhistic have any validity. A few of the reasons supporting our conclusion are as under:
(i) Throughout the hymns of the Guru Granth, nothing is more significant than the acceptance of Creature-Creator relation between man and God. Invariably, God has been addressed as 'Thou', 'Mother', 'Father', 'Brother', 'Beloved', 'Lord', or 'Husband'. In fact, a majority of the hymns in the Guru Granth are in the form of prayers, addressed to God. In the Sikh tradition, two things are firmly established, having the sanction of the Gurus. First, every ceremony, religious or social, ends with an 'ardaas' or supplication to God, invoking His Grace. Secondly, at the time of initiation ceremony (Amrit ceremony), a Sikh is enjoined upon to recite or hear daily Jap(u),.jaap(u), Sawayaas, Sodar(u), Rahraas and Sohilaa, besides reading or hearing of Sri Guru Granth Sahib (Sikh Rahit Maryaada, Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Amritsar, 1970, p. 35.) We thus see that both in the hymns of Guru Granth, and the Sikh tradition and practice, this Creature-Creator relation is never forgotten. So much so that the Guru calls himself as "the lowliest of the low"25 and never does he mention another person as 'That is Thou'. According to tradition the fifth Guru declined to include in the Guru Granth a hymn by a contemporary saint, Bhagat Kaanhaa, saying, "I am He, O, I am the same,"26 because this hymn was felt by the Guru to be evidently contrary to the Sikh thesis that man is not and can never be God though he can be His instrument.
(ii) The arguments advanced to show the Creature-Creator relation in Sikhism and the importance of Prayer, mutatis mutandis, apply also to God having a Personality. We need hardly state that this idea of Personality in Theism is not analogous to the idea of limited personality in man, who is a finite being. In the very opening line of Guru Granth, God is mentioned as the Creating Person, the Timeless Person (karta purakh, akaal moorat). In fact, in all devotional and mystic religions the idea of Personality of God is inherent, since devotion involves God and a devotee.
In Sikhism the idea of the Will (hukam, razaa) of God in relation to the created world is as fundamental as in other theistic religions, like Christianity and Islam. In fact, both the words 'hukam' and 'razaa' used in the Guru Granth are Arabic in origin. The idea of Will is inalienably linked with the idea of Personality of God, the Creator, who alone can have a Will. In reality, we know that Will and Naam are virtually synonymous, both being the Immanence of God. While this point will be elaborated later on, it is well-known that in Sikhism the highest ideal for man is to 'carry out the Will of God'27 or to link oneself with Naam.
Another fundamental characteristic of Sikhism showing the Personality of God is His Grace. One of the chief points made out in the Guru Granth is that nothing happens without God's Grace. While it is stated in the hymn of dharam khand, which lays down man's duties in life, that man's assessment will be entirely according to his deeds'28 it is clearly mentioned that final 'approval will be only by God's Grace'.29 The idea of Personality, Will and Grace of God, being basic to Sikhism, this too underlines its theistic character.
(iii) The verses quoted earlier mention Nature as the Creation of God and not His Emanation or Extension. Obviously, nature is a changing or becoming world, limited by space and time and cannot be eternal like God, who is beyond Time (akaal moorat). Whereas God is Self-Existent or Self-created (swai bhang), nature is the creation of God. While everything in nature is changing, i.e., is born and dies, God is never born (Ajooni). That is the reason that in Sikhism the doctrine of incarnation (avatarhood), or God taking the human form, is strictly denied and is considered heretical; so much so that Guru Gobind Singh described such an idea as an accursed one, he being only a mere servant of God.30 This is also in line with the hymns in the jap(u) quoted earlier. Here the world is upto the Region of Creativity (karam khand) initiated through the medium of energy or power (jor). As indicated in the hymns of saram khand and gyaan khand, a fantastic multiplicity of forms, shapes and things, including the moulding of consciousness, sense perceptions, mind, intellect, etc., are described. Everyone knows that in Sikh theology the highest form of being is, the mystic (bhagat). In jap(u) the Guru distinctly mentions, or rather limits, the presence of these God- conscious or God-filled beings (jin maih Raam rabiaa bharpoor) only upto the Region of Creativity, but never beyond it, i.e. not in the Region of Truth or God (sach khand vase Nirankaar). The Universe is the creation of God but not identical with God, which is the basic distinction between Monotheism and Indian monism or pantheism.
(iv) At a number of places in the Guru Granth, the Guru has described symbolically the state of God when the creation was not there. All this indicates that God is Transcendent as well, and that He is not co-terminus or identical with His creation. Not only does the creation not exhaust God, but He is both prior to and Transcendent to His creation. And God's transcendence could be envisaged only under a monotheistic system and never in pantheism.
(v) An argument has been raised in favour of the supposed pantheistic character of Sikhism because of the Gurus' frequent mention of the immanent character of God in the created world. The Gurus have clearly emphasized the transcendental character of God by saying that the world was created in time and space and the Transcendent God had been there while the world was uncreated, and, for that matter, God's immanent character was unexpressed. We refer to the hymn quoted earlier in this regard. It is also stated that the Word was in God when there was no Universe or Form. The expression of Naam was prior to the creation of the Universe i.e. 'God manifested into Naam and at the second place the world was created.' As stated already, Naam is mentioned as the Creator and Director of the world. It is true that the Guru quite often mentions God as informing the universe. But in no scripture has the distinction between the Transcendent and the Immanent aspects of God been made more clear than in the Guru Granth, because God's Immanence has been given separate names, i.e. of Naam, Will and Word. Evidently, all immanence can be expressed only in relation to the realm of creation, i.e. when God's immanence as Naam creates, sustains and moves the world of name and form; when God's immanence as His Will controls and directs the becoming world; when His Immanence as His Word informs and supports the created universe. In other words, in the Guru Granth both the transcendent and the immanent aspects of God are clearly specified and distinguished so as to avoid any confusion or hasty conclusion that Sikhism is pantheistic. We have already seen that in Sikhism immanence of God in relation to the becoming world does not exhaust God and that is why God's immanent aspect has almost invariably been called His Naam, His Will, His Word. True, ala number of places, the Guru describes God as informing the river, the fish, the boat, and everything. Perhaps, it is such verses as these that have led some to the superficial conclusion of Sikhism being pantheistic. But, all these verses are only a symbolic or another way of expressing the immanence of God. In modem monotheistic theologies including Christian and Islamic, God's Transcendence and His Immanence in the created world are accepted. Even in Islam, God's Immanence is referred to as, "Is He riot closer (to you) than the vein of thy neck."31 Such verses as these do not at all indicate anything beyond the immanence of God, or anything contrary to it. Obviously, God's immanence (His Naam and Will) is manifested and exercised only in relation to the created and becoming world. This description of His immanence and its operation, metaphoric as it is, can mislead no one to any erroneous inference, especially because the Gurus have clearly stated that the immanent God in the universe does not exhaust God and He is transcendent too. "He that permeates all hearts (Le. Immanent) is Unmanifest too."32 "He is pervading everywhere (Immanent) and yet He is beyond everything, beyond pleasure and pain (Transcendent)."33 "He informs everything and yet is separate too."34 "Having created the world, He stands in the midst of it and yet is separate from it."35
(vi) One of the chief objections to any pantheistic theology in the West is the lack of any ethical content and impact in any such view of the universe. Pantheistic philosophies, whether in the East, as in the case of Upanishads, or in the West, as in the case of Spinoza and Schopenhauer, lead to pessimism and fatalism, and lack of moral effort and responsibility on the part of the individual. The disastrous ethical consequences of pantheistic doctrines, including monism that downgrades the reality of the phenomenal world, are too well-known to be detailed here. In this context, we may like to see what is the ethical content and impact of the doctrine of Naam. In no religious system is the emphasis on ethical conduct greater than in the Guru Granth where "truthful living or conduct has been declared higher than Truth itself".36 In the Jap(u), the Guru says that man's final assessment and approval before God will depend entirely on his deeds in this world.37 Further, 'egoistic conduct' has been called 'the opposite of Naam,38 which, as we find, involves selfless and virtuous conduct, Naam being the treasure of all virtues. Similarly, moral living is stressed, since the ideal in life is 'to carry out the Will of God', God's Will and Naam being virtually synonymous. Judged from the emphasis on virtuous life (the matter will be detailed while dealing later with the subject of goal, ethics, etc.) and moral responsibility in Sikhism and its anti-deterministic view, we should evidently conclude that Sikhism is monotheistic and not pantheistic.
(vii) There is a philosophic controversy whether or not mysticism of all kinds is monotheistic or pantheistic. Sikhism is undeniably based on mystical experience. But so are religions like Christianity and Islam which are fanatically monotheistic. It is well-known that many of the great Christian and Muslim mystics have been dubbed as heretical because their description of their mystical experiences could be misconstrued to support a pantheistic view of God, even though these mystics were devotedly religious and deeply reverential to their respective Prophets. Hence, the controversy hardly affects our argument.
13. True, some symbolic descriptions in the Guru Granth, which when seen out of their context and not seen against the overall background of Sikh theology and the overwhelming scriptural evidence to the contrary, could be misconstrued to suggest pantheistic inferences. But, such a view would obviously be not only far-fetched, but also opposed to the general thesis of the Gurus and the concept of Naam. The metaphysical implication of the doctrine of Naam clearly gives a monotheistic Import to Sikhism, which view we find is unmistakably in accordance with the accepted concepts in the Guru Granth.
14. Naam, and the Reality of the World and Interest in Life:
The greatest implication of the doctrine is in its proclaiming the dynamic reality and authenticity of the world and life. "God created the world of life and planted Naam therein, making it the place of righteous activity."39 "God created the world and permeated it with His light."40 Since Naam, God's Immanence, pas not only created the world but is also supporting, controlling and directing it, the same cannot be unreal or illusory. In fact, Naam's immanence in this world guarantees its being a place of righteous activity and not being a fruitless, unwanted or capricious creation. In one form or the other, this idea about the reality of the world gets repeated expression and emphasis in the Guru Granth. "True are thy worlds, true are Thy Universes, true Thy forms, Thou createth. True are Thy doings. This world is the Abode of the True One and He resides in it."41 "True is He, True is His Creation."42 "Human body is the Temple of God."43 "Beauteous, O Farid, are the garden of earth and the human body."44 "Deride not the world, it is the creation of God."45
15. It naturally follows from this doctrine that the world is real and God is greatly interested in it, since - He has created it, He 'revels in His creation,46 and is sustaining and directing it. In the jap(u) God is described as 'perpetually creating the world and benevolently nurturing His creation.'47 'God is the one, who works through winds, waters and fire.'48 'This emphatic assertion about the authenticity of the world is a clear departure from the Indian religious tradition, and is, for that matter, radical in its implication. The Gurus were extremely conscious of this fundamental change they were making, and that is why, both in their lives and in their hymns, they have been laying great and repeated stress on this aspect of their spiritual thesis, lest they should be misunderstood on this issue. Living in this world is not a bondage (bandhan) for them but a great privilege and opportunity. Not only is God benevolently directing the world in which He is immanent, but each one of us is 'yoked to His task and each is assigned a duty to perform.'49 All this clearly indicates God's or Naam's plan and purpose in His creative activity.
16. This idea is also clear from the Gurus' reference, again and again, to God's Will, working in this becoming universe. The very idea of a God of Will clearly presupposes and implies, a direction, and a goal in the creative movement. The persistent interest of God in the creative movement is also obvious from the fact that the Guru calls Him 'the Protector' (raakhaa), 'Father' (pitaa), 'King-emperor' (Padasbah) and a 'Just Administrator' (adlee). In the jap(u) also, the Guru emphasizes the idea that God adjudges each according to his deeds in this world.
17. Naam has been described as the 'Treasure of Virtues and Qualities'. As a loving God with social and other attributes, He has been referred to as 'Father and Mother' (maataa, pitaa), 'Brother' (bharaataa), 'Friend' (mittar), 'Helper of the poor' (gareeb nivaaj), 'Shelter of the shelterless' (nithaaviaan daa thaan), 'Help to the Helpless' (nidhiriaan di dhir), 'Remover of suffering and pain' (dukh bhanjan), 'Merciful' (raheem), etc. God with attributes leads-to three inferences. First, qualities have a meaning only in relation to spa do-temporal world, since all perfection is static and all qualities are relative, capable of expression only in a changing universe. We have already seen that when God was by Himself and the world was not there, the question of good or bad, saved or saviour, love or devotion did not arise. Naam, being the source of all virtues, the world becomes an essential and integral part of the plan of Naamj since without a world for expression there could be no Will and no attributive aspect of God. Thus, Naam and the world are conjoint. Secondly, qualities in Naam indicate learlyand this is the most important aspect-the direction of the progress and the ideal to be pursued by man in this world. Thirdly, all this ensures a logical and deep interest of Naam in the empirical world, since its attributive expression can be made only in it. That is also exactly the reason why the Gurus' call the world real. Consequently, their message and mission also relate to this world, wherein alone these can be fulfilled. For the same reason, the Sikh Gurus' deep interest in all aspects of life, including socio-political aspects, can be directly traced to Naam, whose devotees they were. No feeling or prayer is expressed with greater depth and intensity than the one for the 'gift of Naam'. Now, Naam being the Benevolent Supporter and Director of the world, what can be the gift of Naam to the devotee, except that of an enlightened, loving and creative Interest in the world and in its development. How can one claim to be a devotee of Naam and ask for its gift or link with it, and, yet, decline to toe the line of Naam, namely, of nurturing and furthering the process of creativity and construction in the world rather than becoming an ascetic or a dropout. That is why the Gurus have strongly condemned all ascetic and escapist practices. They say, "One reaches not Truth by remaining motionless like trees and stones, nor by being sawn alive."50 "In vain are yogic practices, without Naam life is a waste."51 "All Yogic austerities, rituals, trance, etc., are in vain; real yoga is in treating alike all beings."52 "O Yogi, you are sitting in a trance, but you discriminate and have a sense of duality. You beg from door to door, are you not ashamed of it ?"53 "Jainic asceticism", or "even if the body is cut into bits, does not efface the dirt of ego."54
18. What kind of life the Gurus recommended, would be detailed while dealing with the subject of goal, but it would be pertinent to quote here the Guru's dictum that "by despising the world one gets not to God."55
19. In Buddhism, Nirvana and Samsara are opposite entities.56 In fact, in all Indian traditions, except in the case of the saints of the Bhakti movement, worldly life had normally to be given up in order to pursue the spiritual ideal. But according to the Guru Granth it is not Naam and Samsara that are opposed, but Naam and Haumain (Egoism)57, it is not worldly activity, as such, that has to be given up, but it is only egoistic and selfish activities that have to be shed.58 Otherwise, belief in a God of attributes, which involves expression in the world of man, becomes meaningless.
20. The best understanding of the kind of interest in life the Gurus recommended for their disciples is gained from the lives they lived themselves. We shall revert to this point in a little detail while dealing with the issue of goal. Suffice it to say here that the Gurus, in harmony with the ethics of Naam, went in for full participation in life. For them it would have been incongruous, on the one hand to call life as real and on the other hand to fight shy of taking up the challenges of the socio-political life of their times.
21. All this was an ideological, deliberate and clear departure from the Indian religious tradition and the Gurus gave a firm lead on this new path. While eulogizing the role of Sikh Gurus in this regard, N. Ray laments the abject surrender to the vicious status-quo on the part of the saints of the Bhakti movement.59
22. Naam and Ethics: On the one hand, Naam being (a) the Sustainer and Director of the universe, (b) opposed to egoism (haumain) and (c) the treasure of all qualities, lays down the standard of its ethics and, on the other, points out that the universe is the plane and place where the qualities of Naam have to be expressed, so as to counteract and remove the vices of egoism and the practice of a sense of duality. Egoism involves separatism, selfishness, and individualism leading to the vices of greed, anger, pride, passion, conflict, wars, etc. 'The removal of duality is the way to God',60 Naam being the opposite of ego, the same has been indicated as the only remedy for egoism, pain and frustration.61 In the same context the Gurus have mentioned two sets of people-one, the self-faced (manmukh) or egoistic, following the ethics of egoism and selfishness, and the other, the supermen or God-faced (gurmukh), following the ethics of Naam, in all phases of human activity. The ethics of Naam chooses its duties, virtues and value-system as consonant with the standard of Naam or a unitary view of life. Following are some of the verses in the Guru Granth condemning egoism and duality and instead recomm ending the virtues and spirit of Naam so as to avoid and eliminate the vices of egoism:
"In the grip of maya, we grab what belongs to others."62 "Man gathers riches by making others miserable."63 "Human passions, ego, duality lead us away from God."64 "God does not come near a person,hard of heart and with a sense of duality."65 "Some people shun meat but devour men."66 "With God,only the deeds that one does in the world are of any avail."67 "Good, righteousness, virtue and the giving up of vice are the ways to realize the essence of God."68 “God's riches belong to all and it is the world that makes distinctions."69
23. Thus, the entire progress of man is from being an egoist to being a man of Naam by shedding the ethics of egoism and accepting the ethics of Naam, i.e., from being self-centred to being God-centred.
24. Naam and Human Goal : It is in the field of human goals that the world-view of Naam and its logic make a basic departure from the traditional Indian view on the subject. On this problem the Gurus' view have not only been made clear and precise in their doctrine of Naam and throughout the Guru Granth, but these have also been emphasized and exemplified by their lives which embody an unambiguous lesson on the issue. We shall, therefore, attempt to consider the subject now from all the three angles, namely, of (a) the doctrine of Naam, (b) other tenets and principles laid in the Guru Granth, and (c) the lives that the Gurus led so as to lay down the ideal for others to follow:
(A) Naam, the Ever-Creative Immanence of God, is engaged in directing the universe, which is real, to become a qualityful world. Every student of Guru Granth knows that the burden of a large number of prayers and hymns therein, is a request for the gift of Naam, or to be linked with Naam, e.g. "I am beholden to Him who enlightens me with Naam."70 "My Guru makes Naam permeate in me."71 "Let me not forget Naam, rest is all greed."72 "I beg from you for the gift of Naam."73 "He reaches the highest stage whom God benevolently yokes to His Naam."74 "To ask for any boon other than Naam is to invite pain."75 "To be imbued with Naam is the essence of true living." "Pray, link me to God."76 Accordingly, the highest ideal under the Naam Marga is to be yoked or linked to Naam in order to take the world of man to a qualityful goal. In this context, the significance of a God of attributes has already been explained. Naam being the opposite of egoism, this progressive movement is towards an ideal in which selfishness and egoism disappear and qualities of Naam are practised. And to be linked to Naam only, means being its instrument and sharing the responsibility of this creative and qualityful development in the world. One imbued with Naam not only takes part in the world without a sense of duality and selfishness but also strives to create a beautiful world of harmony and quality. Egoism is supposed to be the cause of all pain, suffering and conflict which hinder development towards the goal. As against it, the practice of Naam and its ethics, namely, the unitary view of life, is both the ideal and the sovereign remedy for all ills and evils (sarab rag kaa aukhad Naam), and the way to human development. "Destroy evil and you become a perfect man."77 "Give up evil, do right and you realise the essence of God."78
(B) Let us see if the same ideal is prescribed otherwise too in the Guru Granth. In answer to a specific question as to how to remove the wall of falsehood obstructing man's progress to become an ideal or a true man, the Guru gives a categoric reply: "By working according to the Will of God."79 Again the same ideal of deeds (not of words, rituals, asceticism or even of yogic discipline) is prescribed in the hymns of cosmography, quoted earlier about the role of man on earth. It is pointed out that "all assessment is made in accordance with the deeds and doings of man By His Grace only the righteous get the insignia of God's approval."80 In Sikhism, God is the Creator of the Universe and invariably the prayer, and direction is to be of service to Him. "May I have millions of hands to serve Thee. Service is the way to cross the hurdles of life."81 "Be ever alert in the Service of God. Serve God every moment and relax not."82 This in effect means to be of service in the universe, which is the authentic creative activity of God, who is directing it towards a goal and with a purpose. This service in the universe is really the selfless and qualityful service of all who have to be looked upon alike."83 The Guru says, "Where there is egoism, God is not; where there is God, there cannot e any egoism."84
In the Sidh Gost, Guru Nanak has very clearly specified his mission and goal and thrown full light on the issue as to how he would lead his followers across. He says, "With the help of other God-conscious persons, I shall help man to remove his alienation from Naam and God and assist him to cross the difficult hurdles in life."85 Guru Nanak has thus clarified as to what he means by 'carrying out His Will' and executing God's mission of creating a society of God-centred men. The Guru says, ''The God-man achieves the goal and makes all others do so."86 That is exactly the reason why the Gurus have likened themselves to a 'servant of God', a 'solider in God's Legion', or a 'wrestler in the cause of God'. The world being the authentic creation of God, supported by His immanence, the service of God means only the service of His creation, namely, this world, this life and man. It is in this light that the Guru's hymns, in the Sidh Gost and elsewhere have to be understood.
Here we may lay stress on two very important and relevant points:
- The Gurus have repeatedly indicated a continuing process of development, evolution and progress in the empirical world, and (b) They clearly point out that further progress from animal-men or egoistic men to super-men or God-centred men is not only possible, but is also aimed at. In the Hymns of cosmography, already quoted, an ascending order of creation, form, or evolution is indicated. The Gurus have stated that individuation was created by God87 and 'slowly there has been growth from small organisms, insects, etc., to animals, and finally to the present animal-man, with his subtle sense of perception, discrimination reason introspection' "For several births (you) were a mere worm, for several births an insect, for several births a fish, animal, ...after ages have you the glory of being a man."88 "…after passing through myriads of species, one is blest with the human form."89 "God created you out of a drop of water and breathed life in you. He endowed you with the light of reason, discrimination and wisdom…From a sinner He made you virtuous and the lord of all beings. And now it is up to you to fulfil or not to fulfil your destiny."90 Further progress of man or animal-man, as stated in the Hymn of dharam khand depends entirely on the deeds of the individuals. Till man came on the scene, it was not possible for life to outgrow its animal existence and alienation from God. So far, like other animals, man too has been living an animal existence. But, the Guru emphasizes the opportunity available to man to become a super-man, the highest ideal in the world of creation, and thereby be the humble but active agent of the Creative God as indicated in the hymns of Sidh Gost, quoted above. "Man with his egocentric individuality is basically an animal, with all animal limitations"91 and alienation from Naam or God. But he has the invaluable capacity to come into his own by breaking this alienation and establishing a link with Naam.
The Guru again and again addresses man to give up his egocentric activity and instead to rise to his full stature and avail himself of this lone opportunity. "After ages, this invaluable opportunity of human birth is obtained, but one loses it for nothing; one loses a ruby in exchange for a piece of broken glass."92 "Among eighty-four lakhs of species, man is assigned the supreme position, whosoever misses the opportunity, suffers the pain of ransmigration."93 "Human birth is the epitome of fruitful effort, but man loses it for a trite."94 "Human birth is precious."95 "You have obtained the privilege of human body, now is your lone opportunity to meet God."96 This is how we understand Guru Nanak's statements that his mission is, with the help of other God-conscious persons, to assist men to grow into supermen, so as to cross egoistic obstacles in the sea of life, and thereby to help the process of evolution and creativity to supermanship, flowering into a beautiful world. Hence the ideal is not only to be a superman oneself, but with the help of other supermen to convert all men into supermen. 97 And this physico-spiritual ideal, laid in the Guru Granth, can be reached only in this world by removing human alienation caused by the ego (haumain) which is opposed to Naam, and which can be removed only by a creative and altruistic living.
Already we have looked at this issue from another angle and concluded that Naam is conducting a qualityful movement expressible and aimed at fructifying in the world of man. In the background of Indian religions, this is the way to emphasize the importance of creative living m the world, as also of, what one may call this-worldly interest of God. To say that God has moral qualities does not mean an anthropomorphic description of God, but it is a metaphoric way of expressing the essentiality of virtuous conduct which alone secures progress as against the egoistic and individualistic activity of the self-centred man (manmukh), who generates forces of separatism, conflict, war and chaos. That is why the Guru also describes the God-centred men (gurmukh), the ideal in Sikhism, as having qualities of spontaneous beneficence, love, help to the poor, etc., essentially, the same qualities as of God. In short, in the case of God-centred man, his love of God is, in fact, transformed into God's love for man.
It needs to be clarified here whether the ideal in Sikhism is linkage with God or merger in God. According to the Gurus, man, because of his individualism and selfishness, stands alienated from God's Immanence. Instead of serving God of attributes, man, in his ignorance and myopic vision, starts serving his own self and fails to rise to his full height of being a conscious and humble instrument of God's creative functioning in the world. In His Transcendence God's Being is all by Himself in a self-absorbed state, without sign of any visible form, devotion, love or creative activity. In that state God's Will, Naam or Attributes are not expressed since these work only in the created world.
Second is the state when God's Naam and Will are expressed and creative functioning in the universe goes on. To talk of merger in God in this state involves virtually a reversion to the first state of God being Self-absorbed. This is, therefore, a Contradiction in terms because while God is engaged in His Creative Activity, there can be no question of the cessation of this dynamic activity or merger of man in the Selfabsorbed State. Besides, such an opposite process would be evidently Counter to the expressed creative Will of God. True, there are some hymns in the Guru Granth where merger with God appears to be indicated, but this merger or joining means only a link, as quoted earlier, with the Creative Immanence of God because merger involves loss of identity and can be possible only in a pantheistic creed and not in a theistic creed like Sikhism.
Below are quoted a few of the hymns which clarify the issue:
(i) "His body and mind are imbued entirely with the hue of Naam and he lives always in the company of God; as one stream of water intermingles with another, in the same manner his light merges in the light of God."98
(ii) "The gurmukh is all admiration for the attributes of God; and he remains merged in God."99
(iii) "Brahmgyaani looks solely to God for all support." "God lives by the side of brahmgyaani." "Brahmgyaani is himself God."100
(iv) "He devotes himself to God with his whole being and remains merged in his God."101
All these and similar other hymns are significant because the idea of the superman's identity being different from that of God appears in the same hymn as containing, side by side, the idea of his apparent merger or merger in God. Evidently, the Gurus would not give two contradictory concepts in the same breath. Therefore, the seeming symbols of merger only signify a link between the superman (gurmukh) and Naam, especially as in all these and other such hymns, the superman has been indicated as a functioning and separate identity.
We further amplify below to show that the interpretation stated above is the only one that can be accepted:
(i) The Gurus do not lay two kinds of ideals for their disciples i.e. one of link with the Creative Naam or His Will and expressible, only in the created world, and the other of one's merger in the Self-absorbed state of God, even while the created world exists and is being dynamically worked by His Immanence. Nowhere in Sikhism is the least evidence or suggestion of two alternative ideals or duality of goals. Such a thing is contrary to the very fundamentals of Sikhism as expressed profusely in the Guru Granth and in the entire Sikh tradition which is not only anti-ascetic and anti-withdrawal from life, but stands for active participation in the world. Merger in the anonymity of Brahman may be the ideal in other Indian systems or salvation religions, where the world is either an illusion or of a lower category, or where participation in samsara is anti-spiritual, but it cannot be so where God is the Creator of this beautiful world which is the only field of His Will and Creative activity. The goal is not heaven or salvation but love of Naam. "Heaven cannot equal God's Naam. The godfaced has no desire for salvation." "I seek not power, nor salvation; pray, give me the love of God."102
(ii) In the dharam khand the Guru has clearly laid that for everyone on this earth the only ideal is of virtuous activity and deeds which alone meet God's approval. The same direction is given in the Guru's dictum: 'Higher than truth is truthful conduct or living.'
(iii) In the Hymn of Cosmography, as discussed earlier, the superman is limited only to the region of creativity. He is not merged in his immanence, much less in his transcendence, where the question of the separate identity of the devotee does not arise. Any such suggested merger would even be contrary to the clear denial of incarnation of God (avatarhood) in Sikh theology. For, a corollary of man's merger in God would be God's incarnation as man.
(iv) Merger of the superman with God, without being His creative instrument, would inevitably involve the reabsorption of the Immanence or Will of God. This would virtually be a request for winding up all God's creative activity. Such an ideal might be logical in religious systems where human existence is not real and authentic, or is a bondage, or in dualistic creeds where the separation of the spiritual element from the material element (Prakriti) is sought. That is why in such systems, self-immolating asceticism and calculated other-worldliness or austerities have a logical and recognised spiritual sanction, but not so in Sikhism, where all such practices have not only been considered to be useless and superfluous, but are deemed positively harmful and unspiritual, especially when Guru's God is Creative and Attributive and wants His supermen to be the instruments of His Will and His Progressive Creativity. This makes one point clear. The Guru's language being symbolic, link, merger, or joining, can never mean fusion, or loss of human identity of the superman, and, thus, cease to be a creative instrument of God's Will, plan and purpose in the created world. The ideal of simple merger or Nirvana (not Bodhisattvic) would not be the service of God or Naam or action according to His Will, but would rather be an anti-creative annihilation or spiritual suicide almost egoistic in its content.
(v) The ideal of merger in God would be quite foreign to a monotheistic creed like Sikhism which in all its aspects is antipantheistic and casts on the individual, the responsibility of taking up God-centred activity instead of self-centred indulgence. Harmony with the will of God does not mean absorption into it but free cooperation with it. 'Our wills are ours to make them Thine.' In other words, 'Identification with the Divine Will on man's part really signifies an act of faith and freedom by which he makes the Divine End, his own end; it is not the recognition of the actual identity of his will with God's Will', writes Galloway.103
We conclude that the superman, towards whom the evolutionary progress is directed, becomes the instrument of, or linked to Naam. This is the meaning of the ideal of one's being linked with Naam or doing the. Will of God or being given the boon of Naam. The role of the God-faced is not only to be ever-creative and altruistic himself, but also to make the entire social fabric creative and virtuous. In Indian religious life it involves a radical shift from personal piety and salvation to man in general, whose uplift becomes the first and the highest love and priority in spiritual endeavour. Everyone is to be raised to the level of the superman and treated as equal. It is in line with this that in the Guru Granth the hymns of the Muslim and the Hindu saints are given the same status and sanctity as those of Sikh Gurus. This we have seen is the thesis of the Guru Granth and of Naam. Since all these ideals can be pursued by the superman only in the spacio-temporal world, it is obvious that any supposed ideal of merger, as in some other religions, is both foreign and contrary to the thesis of Naam and the Gurus. Just as in the case of the art of swimming, no training or test of it is possible outside the pool, similarly, whether a person is self-centred or God-centred, qualityful or otherwise, can be tested and authenticated only in this world of ours and that also from one's deeds and activities during his participation. Because the aim is to be the instrument of God and to fulfil the object of evolving supermen and making this world into a beautiful and qualityful place of supermen, i.e. to create God's kingdom on earth.
(C) Having come to the conclusion that according to the concept of Naam and the thesis of the Guru Granth complete participation in life is the ideal, we may see what kind of life the Gurus lived. The lives of the ten Gurus are the best pointer to the goal of human life set in the Guru Granth, since these constitute the clearest interpretation of their teachings. In the Guru Granth all kinds of social and political qualities have been attributed to God and the Superman. Accordingly, it was the demand of the very logic of the doctrine of Naam and the thesis of the Guru Granth that the Gurus should have taken full share in the life of their times. And we see that this is, as it should have been.
Apart from the eternal problems of man, with which the Gurus dealt in detail, students of history know that in the Gurus' times there were two malignant growths-the caste and the tyrannical political system. The Gurus never bypassed them as being too mundane to concern them. Regarding both these matters, the Gurus' role has been revolutionary. In their hymns they have forcefully condemned these institutions: "The pride of caste leads to multifarious evils."104 "Distinction of high and low, caste and colour, hell and heaven introduced by the Vedas are misleading."105 "Kings are like tigers and courtiers like dogs and they prey upon peaceful citizens. The Kings' employees tear up innocent persons and the dogs lick up the blood that is shed."106 "The Mughals are made the instrument of death. The people have suffered intensely, O God, art thou not moved ? ….If the strong mauls the strong, I grieve not. If the lion attacks the sheep, the master of the flock must answer."107 Their protest against these evils did not rest at that. In the social institutions which the Gurus organised, caste had no place. Four of the five Beloved Ones (Panj Piaaraas) of the Guru, who were to lead the entire community of the Sikhs were from the Sudras. After the political execution of the Fifth Guru the Sixth Guru started regular military training and preparations in order to fight out the challenges of the oppressive political system. Execution of Guru Tegh Bahadur intensified the socio-political struggle against Mughal misrule. Two of the sons of Guru Gobind Singh sacrificed their lives in war, while the remaining two were bricked alive. The Tenth Guru also had to lay down his own life in this struggle. It is not our object here to go into historical details or to assess the political impact of the Sikh movement. We need only to stress that as the result of their own thesis laid in the Guru Granth, the Gurus felt a spontaneous spiritual compulsion to organise and raise a revolt against the oppressive socio-political system.
25. Obviously, the lives of the Gurus fortify he conclusion we have already reached, namely, that the Guru Granth stands for complete participation in all creative and constructive aspects of life.
26. Way to Naam : Now, we come to the last question as to how to establish link with. Naam, how to become God-centred from a selfcentred person, and what method of training to adopt on this, path. Just as the attributive God must work in the world, the training and transformation must also be in the world itself and not outside it. In the Guru Granth the following five modes of training have been referred to :
(i) remembering God;
(ii) keeping good company;
(iii) developing a sense of discrimination;
(iv) doing virtuous activities in the sense explained already; and
(v) avoiding vices.
It is not our object here to elaborate on these except (a) to clarify an ambiguity which, we feel, exists about remembering Naam and (b) to give a few statements of the Gurus on each of these modes.
(a) Remembering Naam: There is considerable misunderstanding as to that constitutes the remembering of Naam. True, in the Guru Granth there is great mention of remembering Naam (Naam japanaa) and praise of God (sift saalaah ). Accordingly, it has been said by some that this remembering, or what Trumpp calls "muttering", is by itself enough for one to link oneself with God. This remembrance is sometimes also understood to mean yogic practices for the achievement of the so-called bliss as an end in themselves. We are not only unaware of any hymns in the Guru Granth recommending such yogic practices or any tradition in this regard, but there are clear hymns against the use of such practices as means to spiritual achievement or as ends in themselves. True, there are numerous lines in the Guru Granth eulogizing Naam and its remembrance. But there are innumerable verses denying the utility of any mechanical means or mere repetition of words or hymns, e.g. "Everyone repeats God's name, but by such repetition one gets not to God."108 "With guile in heart, he practices guile but mutters God's name. He is pounding husk and is in darkness and pain."l09 "One mutters God's Name, but does evil daily, in this way the heart is not purified."110 The important thing is the motivation behind praise and remembrance. Flattery, sycophancy and hypocritical utterances cannot be praised because the motive of such utterances is self- interest. Real praise involves admiration, love and devotion accompanied by an honest desire to follow as an ideal or imbibe the qualities of one who is praised, God in this case. Such praise is a pining for what we are not, with a humble desire to move in the direction of the ideal. Praise, thus, is a spontaneous acknowledgment of the Glory of God and the desire to please Him, not by mere words but by qualityful deeds. Similarly, remembrance or repetitive utterances can be mechanical, magical, or ritualistic in nature. As against it, remembering can be a way to keep in mind one's basic ideals so that the frail human psyche does not falter or deviate from one's chosen direction and ideals. That is why, in the hymns of the Guru Granth, the reference is not at all to any mechanical repetition but to keep God in mind. Hence, the words used for the purpose are like Naam 'being or living in one's consciousness' (man vasia, or karenivaas), 'enlightening one's being' (kare pargaas), 'imbued' (ratte) etc. This remembrance is like keeping the fear of God in one's mind while embarking on any activity or making any decision. It is not an end in itself and seeks no magical or compulsive effects, but it is a way of reminding oneself to take heart and courage to do the right. Just as in the case of 'doing the Will of God' and 'being yoked to Naam: 'remembering' is also inalienably linked with the subsequent decision to be made and activity to be undertaken. 'By dwelling on the Word, mind flows to serve others.' In short, the praise and remembrance of Naam, or keeping 'Naam in heart' is just the means to recall the lesson and the ideal suggested by Attributive Naam. It is an humble attempt to seek the Grace and Light of the Guiding Star of Naam, to show to the weak and wavering psyche the path one has to tread and the direction in which one has to move in life. The conclusion is the same, namely, that all deeds and activities have to be in life which is the sole test of the earlier training, remembrance and preparation.
(b) Company of God-faced Men: The Guru writes: "Just as castor plant imbibes the scent of the adjacent sandalwood, similarly, even the fallen are emancipated by the company of true ones."111 "In good company we become true and develop love for Naam."112 In good company one becomes good."113
(c) Use of Reason and Sense of Discrimination: In the Gurus' system, use of human rationality and sense of discrimination have a distinct and important place. Man's faculty of reason is without doubt an asset which other animals do not possess. Sikh theology being non-deterministic, man has a distinct moral freedom and responsibility in the choice of his actions and thereby to bring about his transformation. The Guru writes, "By use of discrimination or intellect one serves God. By discrimination one is honoured. By discrimination and study one understands things. It is sense of discrimination that makes one charitable. This is the right way, rest is all wrong."114 "Man is blessed with the light of reason and discrimination."115 "One, in fear of God and discriminating between good and bad, appears sweet to God."116 "We know right from wrong and yet fall into the well with torch in hand."117
(d) Ethical and Creative Activities: We have concluded already that only moral deeds in all fields of human activity are acceptable to God. God's interest in this development of man can be gauged from the fact that "He takes cognizance of and rewards even an iota of good deed,"118 it being 'His innermost nature to help the erring.'119 A few of the Guru's hymns on the issue are: "Love, contentment, truth, humility and other virtues enable the seed of Naam (vision of basic unity" and reality) to sprout."l20 "With self-control and discipline, we forsake vice and see the miracle of man becoming God."121 "Drive out lust and anger, be the servant of all, and see the Lord in all hearts."122 "Control your evil propensities and you become a perfect man."123 "Good, righteousness, virtue and giving up of vice are the way to realize the essence of God."124 "Control cravings and the light of wisdom into deeds."125
27. We need hardly amplify the point except to say that the entire approach and the method of training have to be interconnected and simultaneous. The remembrance of God, good company and use of human rationality have to be the means to help man to undertake and do right kind of action and deeds, involving productive work, sharing of profits and looking upon and treating all alike. "The man incapable of earning a living gets his ears split (for wearing Yogic-Ear-rings) or one becomes a mendicant. He calls himself a Guru or Saint but begs for food from door to door. Never look upto such a person or touch his feet. He knows the way who earns his living by hard work and shares his income with others,"126 i.e. the training of man has to be in life and for life. "My whole being, body and consciousness, are imbued with Naam. True living is living God in life.”127 In the Guru's system the entire development has to be integrated, good actions leading to change in emotions and attitudes, and change in motives and approach resulting in good reactions and deeds. According to the Guru "without good deeds no worship is possible."128
28. Here is an important word of caution. We are not at all denying the basic sanctity of the mystic approach and experience, or that the ultimate link with Naam involving the highest spiritual or suprasensory experience is an act of God's Grace. All we suggest is that according to the Sikh Gurus the seeker's way to seek God's Grace is through virtuous and non-egoistic deeds in life and that after the mystic experience, the compulsion for such deeds is even greater than before since one has to be the creative instrument of the Attributive Naam, dynamically directing and sustaining the world.
29. Conclusion: We have now come to the close of our discussion and recapitulate briefly our conclusions:
(i) The Transcendent God expressed Himself in Naam that created the world.
(ii) Naam is the Creative and Dynamic Immanence of God, supporting and directing the becoming universe towards (a) a qualityful goal and (b) the emergence of a society of supermen.
(iii) Gurus' system is monotheistic, since God is both Transcendent and Immanent and the world is His creation.
(iv) The world is proclaimed as authentic and the sole sphere of Naam's deep interest and activity. It is not illusory or of a lower category of reality.
(v) Accordingly, all human actions have a reality and validity and are immoral or moral, destructive or constructive, self-centred or God-centred to the extent they contribute or not to the ethics of Naam or a unitary view of life.
(vi) The superman is both the knower and the executor of God's Will. After enlightenment, his duties and responsibilities, as the agent of Naam, increase and become more purposeful. He cannot be a silent spectator of this world, or a mere enjoyer of bliss; but his bliss lies in being yoked to God's purpose, giving meaning to life and hope and optimism to man i.e. in Sikhism the test, expression and goal of all mystic and spiritual endeavour is life and life alone.
(vii) The way to establish link with Naam is through virtuous participation and deeds in all aspects of life which is the sole arena and test of spiritual and mystic activity both for men and supermen. It is not possible to have link with God by ritualistic, ascetic or escapist practices or even so called salvation or merger.
30. The doctrine of Naam gives a clear clue to the understanding of the Sikh Theology and Sikh History. It also explains vividly the ten Gurus' attack on the socio-political institutions of their times, their martyrdoms and military preparations and struggle with a view to creating new socio-political organisations and institutions and how all these were the logical consequence of a single spiritual thesis and the continuous unfolding of a planned process, uninfluenced by local, social or political circumstances or the exigencies or accidents of history.
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