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  Gur Panth Parkash
Gur Panth Parkash
by Rattan Singh Bhangoo
Translated by
Prof Kulwant Singh






The ideal man forms the epitome of a religious system. In fact, the concept and characterisitics of the ideal man reveal the entire structure, the salient features and the world- view of a religion. In order to understand the role of the ideal man in Sikhism, it is necessary to know its ideas about God, the reality of the world, and the human goal.

The Idea of God
Sikhism is fundamentally monotheistic. For, in it God is Gracious and has a Personality; prayers to God in order to seek His Grace are an essential component of the Sikh discipline. God is the Creator and the world is His creation in which He is immanent. 'He is Self- Existent, Himself created Naam, then He created the world and permeated it.'l But the more important fact is that He is God of Attributes and Will. For, a God of Attributes has a triple significance. God being Transcendent and Eternal, attributes have a meaning only in relation to the changing world of man. As such, this aspect of God has an integral connection with the world which is the only field for the operation of God's attributes. Secondly, God being the Help of the helpless, Shelter of the shelterless and Protector of the weak, this not only gives sanction to the moral life of man, but also indicates the clear direction in which spiritual life should move. Thirdly, it points out God's deep and intimate interest in the world. For, God rewards even an iota of a good deed done. He helps with a loving care 'all human efforts towards progress and being divine.'2 Similarly, the idea of a God of Will also leads to the same emphasis and inferences, as following from the concept of an Attributive God. Attributes clearly stress the purposes for which the Will of God works. The world then becomes the sole area of His creative activity. For, 'God showers his Grace where the weak and the lowly are helped and cared for.'3

The Reality of The World
The Gurus' idea of God gives a meaningful status to the world. For them the world is true. 'True is He, true is His creation' (p. 294). In numerous' such hymns the Gurus have called the world authentic and real. True, there are- some hymns in the Guru Granth which declare the world activity to be wasteful if it is not conducted with right objectives in view. Such activity is not only useless and without any significance but is also harmful and delusive. But, this is entirely different from holding the world to be illusory or having an otherworldly attitude. Rather the Gurus consider the world to be the medium for attaining human divinity. So much so that they go to the extent of saying that 'by despising the world one gets not to God.'4

The Malady of Haumain
Time and again the Guru s state that all the problems of man, his conflicts, sufferings and insecurity arise from human egoism and his failure to realise his living kinship with his fellow beings. It is the egoistic consciousness of man that causes his alienation from Reality and consequently his pains and problems. It is by 'one's egoistic deeds that one becomes separated from God.'5 And it is by our deeds and looking upon all as equal that we can be near Him and break our alienation from God. This, the Gurus repeatedly stress, is the sole way to solve our difficulties and realise our oneness with all human beings. The Gurus say that man's present consciousness and make up are egoistic or self-centred. In his entire thinking and working he looks only to his own interests. The Gurus call such a person manmukh, selfish or individualistic. As opposed to the manmukh, the ideal is to be a gurmukh, God conscious or God-centred in one's activities. As the words 'self-centred' and 'God- centred' indicate, it is basically an ideal of deeds and not of words, nor of withdrawal from the world, nor of isolation or salvation, nor of merger in Reality or God. Therefore, the concept of the ideal man is integrally connected with the subject of goal in Sikhism. No appreciation of the role of the ideal man is possible unless one grasps the ideal set by the Gurus for all human beings. While it is not necessary to make a detailed treatment of the subject of goal, a broad indication of the different doctrines laid by the Gurus governing the spiritual path may be worthwhile.

(i) Of doing righteous deeds: In the hymns of Dharam Khand, Guru Nanak says that all assessment of man is made in accordance with the quality of his deeds6 and that by His Grace only the righteous persons are approved by God. Again, it is laid clown that 'with God only the deeds one does in the world count.'7

(ii) Of carrying out God's Will: In the very beginning of the Japu Guru Nanak puts a pointed question as to how to become an ideal man, Sachiara, or a true being. The Guru states that the only spiritual path is to carry out His Will.8 As God's Will is attributive and purposeful, it leads man towards a life of universal love. The ideal, thus, is to move in line with His Will and be the instrument of His Love and Virtuous Direction.

(iii) Higher than truth is truthful conduct: Guru Nanak says that higher than truth is truthful living or conduct.9 It means that in Sikhism the ideal is not to withdraw from the world, nor to indulge in ascetic austerities and practices, nor to merge in God; but the goal is to live truthfully and lead a life of virtue and creative activities.

(iv) Of Link with Naam : Students of Sikhism know that almost at every step the Guru prays for being linked or yoked to Naam.10 Naam is a synonym for the Immanent, the Attributive or the Creative Aspect of God directing and moving the world towards an evolutionary development. Thus, the ideal of seeking the gift of Naam only means involving oneself in creative and virtuous activities, Naam being the treasure and fount of all values of creativity.

(v) Of being God-centred: The Gurus repeatedly stress that egoism or self-centredness (haumain) is the fundamental human malady which has to be cured. The way out is to develop a higher consciousness. It is only by this achievement that one can be freed from the narrowness that deludes us into taking a carped and selfish view of things, leading to conflicts and dash, dread and destruction. This higher consciousness may be called God or Naam- onsciousness. For the Gurus say that 'where there is egoism, there connot be God, where there is God, there cannot be egoism'. 'Naam and egoismare opposed to each other, the two cannot be at the same place”11 consciousness is thus a synonym for expresses universal love in its activities.

(vi) To emancipate everyone from pain and insecurity: In answer to a question of the Siddhas, Guru Nanak replies that his' mission in life is that he should, with the help of other God-conscious beings, enable every man successfully to steer clear of the pitfalls of life.12 This has been the avowed mission of Guru Nanak and his successors.

It is obvious that all the six doctrines laying down the goal in Sikhism unmistakably prescribe, though in different language and terms, the same ideal for man. God being the Source of all Creativity, Love and Values, the aim for man is an active life of virtue so as to develop a higher consciousness. This alone will enable man to shed his egoism, live a harmonious and secure life and become the vehicle of God's love for man. It is in this context that one should understand the description of the gurmukh or the Superman that follows.

The Gurus have praised the God-conscious person or the superman in glorious terms. Their description of the God-conscious person by itself gives a clear and concise picture of the concepts of the Gurus about the goal of man, the ideal life, their value system, and their entire approach to the world and life.

(a) Gurmukh has all virtues and no Haumain : The superman is free from haumain and the vices, conflicts and problems, the ego creates. He sheds duality; his ego goes. His "intuition is awakened, evil is turned to good, noise of reason goes and also self-will."13 His achievements are not negative, or that of an ascetic, but he is all virtues and activity in the service of God and men. "They who hearken to the Word fathom deeps of virtue."14 "they who believe, have all virtues."15 "He lives truth and practices truth and truthful is his conduct. "16 "He discriminates between good and evil and does virtuous deeds." "He is compassionate to all."17 In short, he "sees God in all hearts" and "One alone everywhere."18 "He looks alike upon all." His is not a conditioned or rationalised practice of virtues, but "he practices good spontaneously"; "he is the fountain spring of benevolence."19 He serves truth, practices truth and earns truth."20 He serves everyone and removes pain. He is like God with whom he is filled.

(b) He carries out God's Will: God has an Attributive Will. The gurmukh is "imbued by His Will, and carries it out."21 "Wonderous is His Will, one knows it only, if one walks in His Will;"22 for knowledge and deed are integrated and simultaneous. "Those who know His Will, practice it."23 This point is of fundamental importance, namely, that knowing His Will is carrying it out. The two activities are inalienably linked because a Will known is essentially a Will carried out. They who know His Will carry it out. It emphasises the essentially active character of the gurmukh and Sikhism.

(c) He partakes actively in all fields of life: God is the source of all values and virtues. He "is milk to the child staff to the blind and help to the poor and is protector of the weak."24 It is a point of great significance that the gurmukhs virtues are not merely pious and preparatory, meant to secure salvation for him; but his role is positive and dynamic, vis-a-vis vice, evil and human problems in all fields. "He compromises not with evil, nor yields to it." "God's hero is he who fights for the oppressed."25 He sees God everywhere and remains in God's fear.

(d) He is the seroant of God and man : The gurmukh is the servant of God and man. "They dedicate life to Him"; "they are destined to obey His Will"; "he is combatant in God's Legion."26 He is "His pedlar", "His instrument". "Service of God is the way to be fulfilled". "He does not forget God even for an instant", "God is the intuition, intellect and capital of saints". "He is the servant of God."27 His service of God is really the creative service of life and man because Immanent God and the world are conjoint. The Guru says he "is the slave of all creation"28 and prays "the world is sick, O God, save it by any means you may be pleased to do."29 The gurmukh is not for his own salvation or glorification. He helps man by all means available to him and creates organisations for that purpose. "God, give me millions of hands to serve thee."30 The goal is the service of man.

(e) He is godly: The Guru describes the gurmukh as possessing all the virtues. "He is ocean of virtues and truthful"31, "shelter of the shelterless"; "God is compassionate and so is the nature of saints32; he "saves all and removes pain". "He becomes like Him with whom imbued"; "by serving God one becomes like God."33 He is like God, but he is not God.

(f) He helps all to be God-centred: He aims to make all others Godcentred. Such a person helps others to become God-conscious. "He unites himself and unites others too"34; "he is emancipated and emancipates others."35 The Guru says, "I am sacrifice to him who sees Him and makes others see Him."36 In the Gurus' system the ideal to make everyone a superman remains supreme. It is the highest aim of the gurmukh. This priority, therefore, becomes the very reason why the gurmukh deals with all men and participates in all fields and aspects of life, the object being to pursuade and drive everyone towards the goal of God- consciousness. The emphasis on this ideal of making everyone God-conscious is fundamental. For the Guru says that "God established the earth for the sake of God- conscious persons. "37 This, in essence means that the creation or the evolution of the superman on earth is the purpose of God towards which all life is striving.

The Guru says "knowing His Will, I serve Him"; "I cannot live without God"; "my life and body are thine, without you lose life". Naam, Word and Will represent the dynamic aspects of God which is full of Life. These three aspects of God are integrally operative in the world. These direct the world towards an ever-emerging purpose. God is attributive. It is in this light that the devotee of God has to be all activity, creative and virtuous. The Guru Granth is full of prayers to God for the gift of Naam, which means a creative and virtuous role of looking alike upon all men, helping the weak and fighting the oppressor. The superman, being imbued by the dynamic and attributive aspects of God, carries out such a role in the world. So often the God-centred has been likened to God, because he is His instrument, soldier, pedlar and servant. He carries out God's every creative and attributive Will. The picture which the Gurus draw of the God-centred person is entirely of a creative being. His role is not only to fight the oppressor, actively to help the weak, and to practice virtue, but also to help every one in his development towards a God-conscious being. God established the earth in order to bring out the superman to do His Will or live truthfully.38 The gurmukh being the epitome of God's creation, he has a master role to play.

It is in this context that the gurmukh understands his role, and looks upon the world and life as a beautiful and meaningful creation of God. He has a message for man, namely, that (a) man's difficulties and miseries are due to a life of baumain or self-centredness, (b) man has the capacity and the opportunity to shed egoism and develop a higher consciousness, (c) all spiritual progress is possible through moral or righteous deeds alone, and (d) all progress is sought for the enrichment of life so that the kingdom of God is established on earth and every man becomes a God-centred being whereby alone his problems of insecurity and alienation from God, fear and frustration, pain and conflict, and disharmony are solved. The Gurus leave no doubt about the content of their message and their mission in this world. This, for that matter has to be the mission of every gurmukb, because a truly spiritual being is wholly and spontaneously moral. That is the result and test of his new awakening or God- consciousness. It transforms him into a new being with the innate nature, like God, of helping every erring man. The ordinary man is no doubt moral but his moral actions are conditioned, calculated and, to an extent, artificial. He, therefore, continues to be in pain, conflict and suffering. That is why with the best of intentions man, groups of men, societies, and nations are always involved in internecine conflicts, despair and destruction. In a way, this is the price man pays for his freedom and the capacity to rise higher. This freedom or capacity, man fails to utilize. It is only the gurmukb who is truly moral and responsible. He is never in doubt, fear or pain. Under all eventualities and trials, he is in bliss and poise. He fears none and reacts to wrongs and challenges, from wherever those should emanate. All life is the sphere of his activity and operation. In order to avoid his responsibility he does not divide life into man-made and arbitrary compartments like religious, social and political ones. He does not narrow down his activities to the socalled spiritual spheres and exclude the political ones. It is he who by his life demonstrates that there is a God of attributes and carries out His Will by living truth. He does not tend to limit his responsibility only, to the monastic or so-called religious spheres. For him all fields are religious, including political, social and the rest. Wherever there are the greatest problems to solve and challenges to meet, the gurmukh must react in order to tackle them. That is exactly the reason that Guru Nanak in the very beginning of his years pointed out the faults and failings, inequities and oppressions, whether institutionalised or otherwise, in all spheres of life whether political, social or others.

The Indian Tradition
We have had a brief glimpse of the ideal man in Sikhism and of the Sikh world-view. The Gurus' concept of God, their approach to the world, the problem of haumain, its suggested solution, and the role of the ideal man in life have an integral connection with one another. They form the inalienable parts of a single harmonious thesis. Before we come to our conclusion, we shall consider if this thesis, or parts of it, existed in the Indian milieu.

In the Vedic system everything could be obtained through sacrifices and mantras and rituals. What was important was the complete obedience to the Vedic commands that were apaurusheya. Vedic rituals done with complete accuracy and meticulous care could secure anything in this world or the next,39 thereby eliminating the role of God in the process. This mystic system we shall find has hardly anything in common with the concepts accepted in Sikhism. Here the highest honour went to the priest who had the Vedic knowledge and chanted the mantras for the benefit of others.

Next we come to the Upanishadic system. It propounded the doctrine of Brahman and everything being a part of the one whole. The chief emphasis was on other-worldliness. This secret doctrine was open only to a few, fit for the purpose. Yajnavalkya, the chief sage of the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad finally resolved to leave the world.40 It was in the Upanishadic times that the system of four ashramas, the last two periods of Vanprastha and Sanyasa being purely otherworldly, came to be religiously prescribed. While indicating the attitude of the ideal man towards the world, Gaudapada says that one should behave in the world like an insensible object.41 It is a goal of complete disinterestedness in and withdrawal from the empirical world. Such is the role prescribed for the ideal man.

In the Vedantic system too the world is deemed to be illusory or mithya or of a lower category of reality. Involvement in the worldly life is a fall, it being a State of relative existence which has to be transcended in order to be a Jeevan Mukta and reach the level of aham brahmasmee.42

The position is no different in Shaivism and Vaishnavism. Both of them accepted the complete scriptural authority of the Vedas and the Upanishads. The Vaishnava saints like Ramanand, Chatainaya, Mirabai and the rest remained completely absorbed in a life of devotion or meditation. They were all broadly speaking, otherworldly. None of them prescribed, much less organised or created, new institutions in order to tackle the socio- political problems of their times. The very fact that none of them even attempted to do so shows that such an activity was beyond the scope of their spiritual thesis. The Bhagawat Gita, while it accepted the validity of Vedic ritualism and gave precedence to the Upanishadic path of gian, did approve of the performance of one's caste duties. This has nothing in common with the Sikh ideas and activity or its ethical system. In the Gita Lord is made to accept the divine authorship of the system of four castes, and completely prohibited mobility between different castes.43

Buddhism, Jainism and Yogic Nathism were the other prevalent traditions in the time of the Gurus. The Gurus emphatically record their differences with these systems, particularly with their asceticism, other-worldliness and direction.

There is little doubt that in Jainism all world activity is an involvement, the ideal being the complete separation of the spiritual monad (jeeva) from its combination with matter (jeeva). All acts, good or bad, soil the purity of the jeeva for which complete isolation or Kaivalya is the ideal. Despite even prayers, the teerthankara is never inclined to return to the world of man.44 In the Digambara system, life of a woman was considered to be of a lower status. She could not achieve kaivalya till she gained birth as a man. For, a masculine incarnation was a prerequisite for achieving kaivalya.45 The extremely ascetic and other-worldly character of this system is not in doubt.

In its other-worldliness Buddhism was no different. Good acts could lead to a better birth but not to nirvana. Buddhism was completely monastic in its religious organisation and aims. The Buddhist bhikhsu was no different from the sanyasin or the Upanishadic hermit.46 The bhikhsu had to be celibate. Women were admitted to the monasteries but their status, because of their sex, was lower than that of the male bhikshu. It has been recorded that Buddha, who was reluctant to accept women in themonasteries or sangha, felt that the inclusion of women would reduce the life of Buddhism from a thousand years to half that period.47 It has been stated that a drowning woman, even if she were one's mother, should .not be rescued, by the monk. After his enlightenment, when requested, Buddha never returned to his domain as a king, such a role being not in consonance with one who had achieved nirvana.48

Yoga was another prevalent system of those times. Nath and Yogic asceticism and other-worldliness were severly condemned by the Gurus. The Nath Yogis criticised the worldly role of Guru Nanak. But, the latter denounced their asceticism by saying that Naths did not know even the elementaries of the spiritual path.49

In the fifteenth century, Sufism was a living creed in this country. But Sufism in India, as elsewhere, has always been dominantly otherworldly. Khankahs, were the Sufi monasteries. True, married life was not taboo among the Sufis, but life at the Khankah remained virtually divorced from the world around it. Renunciation and ascetic practices have always been an important component of the Sufi discipline and life.

Even Christian missionaries had extended their organisation to this country in that period. But, it cannot be denied that Christianity not only accepted the principle of "give unto Caesar what is Caesar's", but for hundreds of years after the crucification of Christ remained completely monastic. Celibacy and nunneries became recognized institutions. So much so that even in the year 1979, the Pope, despite the demand of equal rights for women, declined to accept the ordination of women as priests in the Catholic Church. In Christianity the monastic legacy has been strong and apparent.

In the context of the Indian Tradition, we find that the role of the gurmukh, his approach to the world, and his world-view are a complete departure from the position in the other religious traditions prevalent in the country. The Gurus conceive of God as a Creator, God who is operating his Attributive Will in a world, that is real, authentic and meaningful. Man's basic malady is his egocentric consciousness (haumain) which like the prison waIls obstructs his vision from realising his basic relationship with all beings. It is this haumain that drives man on the path of narrow individualism and destructive conflicts. The solution lies in developing a higher consciousness through the means of virtuous deeds and altruistic activities. The gurmukh or the superman is the instrument of God's Attributive Will. He practices universal love, protests and helps the weak and fights the oppressor. This, in short, is the world-view of the Gurus as is apparent from their statements and a description of the gurmukh indicated earlier. The fundamentals of this world-view were nowhere visible in the Indian background nor in the contemporary world scene. Earlier, all spiritual energies were being withdrawn from the world and directed towards the field of other-worldliness in the hope of kaivalya (isolation), nirvana, realisation of oneness with Brahman, or merger or union with God. In each case it was a state of blissful enlightenment and withdrawal from the empirical world.

But the logic and compulsion of the Guru's spiritual thesis have an entirely different direction. After his enlightenment Guru Nanak made a very fundamental pronouncement saying, 'there is no Hindu nor any Mussalman'. This statement had a revolutionary significance. It not only proclaimed the equality of man but also emphasised the Guru's interest not in any abstract metaphysical proposition but primarily in the fate and future of man. With this mission he started his world tours for the organisation of his followers. After the declaration of his mission, the Guru took some major steps which were opposed to the then existing religious trends in the country. He changed the entire direction of the flow, aims and objectives of the spiritual life. We shall indicate only five such steps as the Guru took in persuance of his declaration. The Guru proclaimed that his mission was to help all men and not to seek any so-called personal salvation or merger in God. With Mardana, a low-caste Muslim as his companion, he started his world tours in order to preach his religion and organize its institutions.

Evidently because of the logic of his system, Guru Nanak was not only opposed to asceticism, monasticism, priestcraft and otherworldliness, but his followers constituted almost entirely of ordinary householders of all levels and castes. Again, it is very significant that all the Gurus, except Guru Harkrishan, who died at an early age, were married  householders. Unlike Lord Buddha who, after his enlightenment, refused to return to his kingdom and lead a family life, Guru Nanak on his return from his missionary tours, settled at Kartarpur, sent for the members of his family, and started earning his livelihood by working as a peasant. He continued as such till the end of his days. It is a very significant contrast with the other religions of India that in the Guru's system not only the householders were freely admitted to its fold, but the second and third Gurus, even excluded the ascetics from becoming the members of the Sikh organisation.50 When Guru Nanak asked his successor to go to Khadoor Sahib and continue the mission there, he clearly advised him to send for the members of his family and keep them with him.51

In line with the spiritual rationale of the first step, is Guru Nanak's insistence on everyone being engaged in productive work. One should not only earn one's living, but also share one's income with others, particularly through the establishment of Langars for the free distribution of food at every Sikh centre, and later through the contribution .of one-tenth of one's income to the community fund. The Guru says that he alone knows the spiritual path, who works hard and shares his earnings with others.52 As the pioneer of a new religious system, he gave a clear lead which was followed by his successors and followers.

Thirdly, he started the institution of Langar which, apart from feeding the needy persons, became the chief instrument in demolishing the rigid caste barriers that hindered free social intercourse and the equal treatment of all castes. On this issue Guru Nanak's stand was clear. For, at the very outset, he took Mardana, a low caste Muslim, as his regular companion during his tours. The third Guru made it a rule that no one could see him unless he had partaken of the food from the common kitchen, while sitting at a common platform with members of the other castes.

By raising the religious level of the householders' life, Guru Nanak brought about another revolution in the socio-religious field. By demolishing the taboo against the householder's life and condemning asceticism, the Guru ipso facto raised the status of women. We have already indicated that most of the religious systems placed a clear disability against women following the religious path. Guru Nanak stressed that the women, the mother who gave birth to every person, could not be deemed impure.53 The second Guru made his wife incharge of the community kitchen. The third Guru appointed women as incharge of missionary work in different areas (diocese).54 Again, it was a woman, Mai Bhago, who reprimanded the Bedawias (those who had left the tenth Guru) and led them back to the field of battle at Mukatsar where they all fought the Mughal army and laid their lives for the Guru.

Lastly, we come to the problem of political set-up. Guru Nanak is one of the very few prophets who made a strong criticism of the political and administrative set-up of his times. This criticism had a specific meaning, purpose and direction. With clear objectives, he laid the foundation of a new society which was expanded by his followers. When the community took a sizeable shape and cohesion, with a central scripture and organisation of its own, it was the fifth Guru, who by helping Khusro, who was then commanding an anny, sought confrontation with the Empire.55 This confrontation was deliberately continued by his successors. That the sixth and the tenth Gurus took the initiative against the Mughal Empire is not in doubt. But the seventh and ninth Gurus did no less.

Guru Har Rai at the head of his army met Dara, the rebel prince, and offered him his help. 56 Guru Tegh Bahadur asked the Kashmiri Pandits to convey to the Emperor that he should deal with the Guru, before he compelled the Kashmiris to change their religion. later, he declined the proposal of the Emperor that in case the Guru confined his activities purely to the so-called peaceful and religious spheres, the Guru would remain unmolested.57

The history of the Sikh movement shows in bold relief these five features of the Guru's religion and their lives. There are two important points about these features of Sikhism. First, these are in glaring contrast with the essentials and trends of the earlier tradition In fact, there was no sign of these developments in the contemporary religions. Secondly, all these features are intimately interconnected, with one step following from the other. These features of Sikhism are not an assorted formation borrowed from here or there. But, these  constitute an integrated development emerging from the basic logic of the system itself. In fact, it is the failure to grasp the fundamental logic of the system and its determining direction that has led to a number of its misinterpretations. In the other systems, withdrawal from the world, ascetic, ritualistic, formal or devotional practices, isolation of Pumsba merger or union with Reality are a part of the spiritual path. In Sikhism, the trend and the emphasis are in exactly the opposite direction. For, as an attributive God, He is not only conjoint with the world but is engaged in a movement for the evolution of man is his baumain. The only remedy is Godconsciousness or development of a higher consciousness by which everyone is treated alike and with love. Here the expression of God's universal love for man is the ideal. God is deeply interested in the world and in the elevation of man into a higher being. The superman, thus, is the instrument of God in doing His Will and in furthering this process.

As all spiritual endeavour is directed towards the world, the duties of the householders and the need of productive work evidently becomes important. As such, the status of women too becomes high and equal with men. Not only social life and the equality of man become major spiritual objectives, but the raising of every being to the level of God-consciousness becomes the chief goal. Therefore we conclude that in the spiritual system of the Gurus, the five developments mentioned earlier assume a basic importance.

It is in this context that the direction and goal of spiritual life, and the description and role of the gurmukb in Sikhism should be understood. Bhai Gurdas calls Guru Nanak a gurmukb. Guru Nanak stated that his mission in life was to help everyone to become emancipated.58 Hence, the contrasted differences between the role of the superman in Sikhism and that in other Indian religions. It is, therefore, clear why the Gurus, in view of their spiritual world- view, insisted on setting new goals and objectives before man and on creating new institutions and a society that should accept, own and pursue those ideals. This explains the concept of gurmukb in Sikhism and the part he, as the instrument of God, is expected to play in the world. For, though he is not. God, he is His humble servant or agent on earth.



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