Socio-Political Impact of Guru Granth Sahib on the Sikh History
Dr Gurdarshan Singh Dhillon
Compilation of the Granth Sahib as the Sikh scripture by the fifth Guru Arjan was a very important step which established the spiritual and ideological identity of the Sikh religion and the Panth. The installation of the Adi Granth in the sanctum sanctorum of the Sikhs, the Darbar Sahib, Amritsar by Guru Arjan, in 1604, was another essential step towards the organisation and unification of the Sikh Society. It bestowed upon them their distinctiveness and set the faith clear from the trammels of the earlier religious tradition in India.
The message of the Gurus, expressed through simple, easy and life-invigorating hymns, reflects the sincerest endeavours of the Gurus to lift mankind to higher planes of thought and action. The Sikhs have made use of Gurbani to bless, console and guide them in their joys and sorrows. In fact, the nucleus of the Sikh society is woven round Guru Granth Sahib which has been hailed as ‘the living voice of the Gurus’. It was the tenth Guru Gobind Singh who took the important and sagacious decision to put an end to the line of human Gurus by conferring the Guruship on the Granth Sahib. It became the commandment for all Sikhs to accept the Granth Sahib as their eternal unchanging and unchallenged Guru1. Granth Sahib as the Guru became the source and symbol of solidarity for the Sikhs. In turbulent times, when the community found itself leaderless, Bani as Guru acted as a source of inspiration.
Sublime gospel of the Gurus has served as a spiritual foundation upon which the glory of Sikhism has been reared. Impulse for all that is noble, grand and beautiful in Sikh history has been derived from the message of the Gurus. The most glorious periods in Sikh history have been those when the Sikhs sought inspiration from the Bani of their Gurus and asserted the supremacy of Guru Granth. Viewed in this context, the Sikh scripture has a unique socio-political significance as its message caters to the needs of a progressive society.
Earlier religious tradition in India, with its emphasis on other-worldliness, had become insipid, moribund, inactive and irresponsive to growth. Moreover it was highly individualistic, priest-dominated, caste-ridden and orthodox. The world was looked upon as unreal (maya) and illusion. This condition had been a stumbling block to the progress. It undermined the creative energies of the people. Those who chirished and practised the ideal of a purely contemplative life and pinned all their hopes on bliss in the next world, unmindful of family and social commitments, barred their way to material development in this world. The entire ethos and history of medieval India was shaped by this attitude. As a result, India was condemned to remain enslaved for centuries. It was here that Guru Nanak provided the necessary corrective to the misdirected Indian society by declaring that man can realise his true destiny on earth by constantly striving for unity in spiritual and empirical matters.
Religion, as defined by the Guru, is a noble creative activity of a spiritual man, in the true sense of the word, is animated by an intense desire to do good in this world2. The Guru aimed at creating a species of God-conscious men who would remain socially responsible and operate in the mundane world of the phenomena with the object of transforming and spiritualising it into a higher and more abundant plane of existence. Along with spiritual fulfillment, the Guru also delivered the message of earthly hope3.
Guru Nanak’s times were characterised by political dependence and social decadence. The Guru raised the Indian spirit from servility and inertia which had characterised it for centuries. He challenged the oppressive rulers of his times and lashed at the so-called custodians of religion for their hypocrisy and degradation4. The Guru’s mighty vision brought a revolution in religious thought.
The Guru proclaimed that the world is real5. It is the creation of God reflecting the Divine plan and purpose. He looked upon God not as an abstract phenomenon but as Ever-creative, happily looking at His creation with a gracious eye6. By placing a positive virtue on the natural order, the Guru brought worldly structures – the family, the social and economic systems within the orbit of religious concerns. He was critical of the recluses and the ascetics who disowned their worldly responsibilities and, in their despondency, became a burden on the society.
The Guru believed that a man of religion has an obligation to humanity. He cannot escape from it through a retreat from reality. No real progress can be made unless intelligence becomes functional and is used in the solution of political, social and economic problems. Sikh scripture keeps reiterating that man has to be a God-centred Gurmukh and not a self-oriented Manmukh.
The Guru’s message of spiritual fulfillment and earthly hope aimed at creating whole men, who would grow not only in the soul but would be more sturdy and broad of limb, full-bodied, progressive and integrated men, who would make this earth more productive and who would fight against tyranny, whether religious or social, from whatever quarter it may come. In the philosophy of the Guru, Truth is exalted but Truth is not an abstraction. It is live and active and is seen, felt and experienced. ‘Truth is above everything but higher still is truthful living7, says the Guru. Path of salvation lies through good deeds. The whole conception of Guru Nanak’s mission and teachings hinges on this philosophy. The events of Sikh history can be tested on the touchstone of Guru’s injunction: “If thou are zealous of playing the game of love, then enter upon my path with the head on thy palm. Yes, once thou settest thy foot on this path, then find not a way out and lay down thy head”8.
The Guru taught by precept as well as by example. He set the example not to bow before brute force but to resist aggression and tyranny by himself courting arrest at Saidpur during Babar’s invasion of India. He not only protested against the tyranny of the invader but also admonished the people for not realising their responsibilities and surrendering like cowardly sheep. He also strongly condemned the Lodhi rulers of Delhi who were not able9 to defend and protect their subjects.
Guru Nanak gave a vigorous start to his movement of socio-political transformation of a vanquished people. He established Dharmsals (Gurdwaras) and founded two very important institutions namely, Sangat and Pangat. Sangat means a gathering of the Guru’s followers for community worship and deliberations for general welfare. Pangat pertains to community kitchen in the langar, where all sit down to dine in a line irrespective of distinctions of caste or class, high or low. The way of Sikhism was not for the elect. The Guru gave the first living democratic impulse that levelled all caste and racial distinctions. He struck at the roots of Varna Asharam Dharam which was the mainstay of Hinduism. The Guru emerged as the champion of down-trodden masses in caste-ridden India. Scriptural knowledge was meant to be the common property of all men, women and children without any distinctions. Universal message of the Guru advocated the brotherhood of mankind under the fatherhood of God. Doors of spirituality were opened for all. The Guru’s mighty vision animated a whole society and made them throb with love and life. The Sikhs became a vibrant community. They have exhibited extraordinary capacity for mass action in the vindication of their public goals.
The propagation of Sikhism did not require the patronage of any ruler or emperor. The Guru’s movement spread by virtue of its purity and dynamism. The process of spiritual awakening and regeneration of man and resurrection of human values was carried on by Guru Nanak’s successors with full vigour. Proclaiming his implicit faith in Guru Nanak’s mission and his readiness for self-sacrifice, the fifth Guru Arjan proclaimed:
‘I have built up the Adobe of Truth,
And gathered in it, the Guru’s Sikhs after great search,
The Merciful Lord hath now given the command,
That no one will henceforth domineer over and give pain to another,
And all will abide in peace, such being the rule of merciful Lord.
I am the combatant of God’s own legion (Akal Purkh Ki Fauj).
On meeting the Guru, the plume of my Sarband flutters high up.
The spectators hath assembled in the arena to witness my deeds of valour;
The Creator Himself witnessed (the struggle)’11.
True to his high ideals, Guru Arjan courted martyrdom in defence of righteousness. Guru Nanak’s message was to follow His will cheerfully. Guru Arjan set an example of the acceptance and practice of living in ‘Hukam’. With perfect faith and a fearless mind, anchored in God, the Guru remained absolutely cool in the face of death. His martyrdom infused a spirit of fearlessness among the Sikhs.
Seventh Guru Hargobind, at the time of his initiation, asked for not one but two swords of Miri and Piri. This was in consonance with Guru Nanak’s world-view which emphasised an inalienable link between the spiritual life and the empirical life of man. The sixth Guru also raised the Akal Takhat next to Harmandir Sahib as a visible symbol of the Miri-Piri combination in Sikhism. Akal Takhat became the nucleus around which the socio-political life of the community began to revolve. It was from the Akal Takhat that the Sikh launched their political struggle against the invaders.
Martyrdom of the ninth Guru Tegh Bahadur to wipe out the shame of indignity exercised a profound psychological influence on the Sikh community and went a long way in keeping alive the ideal of service and sacrifice. It was a landmark in Indian history and had far-reaching consequences in shaping the character and outlook of the Sikhs. Martyrdom for a just cause became an inseparable part of the Sikh religious tradition.
Guru Nanak had envisioned a society of God-conscious men who would spiritualize life on this earth and lift mankind to a higher plane. Through creation of the Khalsa, Guru Gobind Singh presented the role model of a God-conscious man - a man of courage and conviction who would be ready to suffer and sacrifice to uphold truth and resist tyranny and injustice in fulfillment of Guru’s mission. The foremost aim of the Khalsa was to bring the Guru’s ideals into practical everyday life. Khalsa was to be a saint-soldier with a very high spiritual and moral code, dedicated to the cause of selfless service to humanity. The tenth Guru Gobind Singh administered the nectar of Khanda (double-edged sword) to the Khalsa and bade them to join the forces of love with their heads on the palms of their hands. The Guru legitimized the use of force in defence of human values. Guru’s primary aim was the resurrection of the spirit of man which had degenerated and decayed to non-entity under centuries of subjugation and exploitation by the rulers and the priests. The Guru declared that the free spirit of Khalsa would owe allegiance only to God and to no earthly ruler. With anchor in the Fearless One, the Khalsa was emancipated from all fears – the fear of the state, the fear of the ruler, the fear of the priest, the fear of the high class, the mental fear created by superstition, formalism and ritnalism of religion and, above all, the fear of death itself. The supreme sacrifice made by Guru’s father and all the four sons is unsurpassed in the annals of history.
The Khalsa has made a very important contribution to history. By rousing the dormant energies of the people and resurrecting their lost character and faith, the Khalsa marched at the vanguard of freedom.
Before shedding his mortal frame, Guru Gobind Singh declared that the Granth Sahib would be the eternal Guru of the Sikhs, thus ending the lineage of living physical Gurus. The Guru did not elevate any single person to the position of absolute authority in empirical matters. Temporal power was vested in the collective leadership of the Khasla Panth which was called Guru Panth and was invested with a mystical halo. The Guru’s endeavour was aimed at creating a dynamic society, ever-fresh, progressing and marching forward. Accordingly, he created a living organism with the dynamic presence of the Guru in Guru Shabad functioning in the Khasla Panth.
Banda Singh Bahadur who appeared on the socio-political scene after the demise of Guru Gobind Singh was a baptised follower of the Guru. Through sheer force of his faith in the Guru’s mission, Banda challenged the mighty Mughal empire. Although the Mughal forces were far superior to the soldiers fighting under Banda, both in terms of numbers and ammunition, yet the former were nothing more than mercenary soldiers or plundering adventurists, whereas the Sikh soldiers had received their motivation from a higher sphere of life. They were Akal Purakh Ki Fauj (God’s own force) who fought as one man with a single-minded devotion. The conviction that they were fighting for the cause of freedom and dignity – a cause dear to the Guru, filled them with zeal and vigour. The very sight of a few Sikhs flashing their swords and shouts of Wahi-Guru Ji Ka Khalsa Wah-i-Guru Ji Ki Fateh, (Khalsa belongs to God and its victory is the victory of God) renting the skies would often cause stampede in the ranks of the Mughal forces and force them to retreat. They were men of valour and conviction who were trained to fight and conquer by Banda Singh Bahadur. No wonder, they laid low the forces that had seemed invincible. The result was that territory between Lahore and Panipat lay practically prostrate under Banda’s feet. Yet Banda made it abundantly clear that he was not fighting a religious war nor did he bear any animosity against the Muslims. He proclaimed, “We do not oppose Muslims and we do not oppose Islam. We only oppose tyranny and we only oppose usurpation of political power which belongs to the people and not to privileged individuals or to Mughals12. He never acted treacherously against the enemies. He observed high moral standards and never harmed a woman or a child.
Banda professed himself to be a devoted servant of the Panth. He accumulated no wealth and built no palace for himself. Whatever territory he captured was in the name of the Khalsa fraternity. He attributed his victory to Guru Nanak and Guru Gobind Singh. His official seal bore the inscription: ‘Deg Teg Fateh’ (Free kitchen and sword should prevail in the world).
True to the Guru’s ideal, Banda was a champion of the downtrodden, irrespective of whether they were Sikhs, Muslims or Hindus. During his short rule, he abolished landlordism and gave a new socio-economic direction to society.
Towards the end, when Banda and his followers were besieged in the fort of Gurdaspur and eventually forced to submit, they were given the choice either to embrace Islam or face death. They opted for the latter. When a Mohammadan noble asked Banda to explain his mission. He claimed a divine sanction for his mission and answered that ‘he had been a mere scourge in the hands of God for the chastisement of the wicked13. A hundred of Banda’s followers were put to death daily but they would vie with one another for priority of martyrdom14. Banda’s son was killed before his eyes. His own flesh was torn with red-hot pincers. He died in he midst of these torments but did not swerve from his faith till the end and remained cool in the face of death, like a true saint-soldier of the Guru.
During the first part of the turbulent eighteenth century when the Sikhs faced an intense wave of persecution and the Mughal emperor had issued orders of extermination of the Sikhs, the community had no bond of union other than the sincerity and solidarity of their common faith. The Emperor had issued an imperial ordinance on December 10, 1710 to the effect that ‘every Sikh, wherever he is found, wherever he is seen, should be put to death without any hesitation and without any further thought’. A price was put on their hands. Under extreme pressure, the Sikhs had to move out from towns and villages and seek refuge among the recesses of hills or in the woods to the South of the Sutluj or in the Malwa desert. As their women and children were not spared they took them to their hideouts along with a little bundle of their clothes and their holy book, the Guru Granth Sahib. Gurbani served as a beacon of light in these dark days. The Sikhs proved their faith by the fact of their survival in such hostile and inhospitable circumstances.
Under the Misals, the Sikhs were, once again, able to assert themselves against the might of the Mughals, the Afghans and the Marathas. Community of faith or object was their moving principle. After the close of the first quarter of the eighteenth century, when their rule was firmly established, the Sikhs started assembling at Akal Takhat to hold their deliberations on the occasion of Diwali and Baisakhi. These assemblies, called the Sarbar Khalsa were sanctified as the Guru was believed to abide in the Khalsa. This infused a spirit of unity and cohesion in the ranks of the Sikhs. The resolutions passed in these assemblies had something mystical about them, beyond all ordinary considerations. These were called Gurmattas (Guru’s decisions) and were binding on all Sikhs. These Gurmattas were invariably passed unanimously without any vote of dissent.
Ranjit Singh’s rule was a characteristic product of the Sikh tradition. He daily listened to recitations from the Guru Granth Sahib and referred to his government as Sarkar-i-Khalsa, which derived its legitimacy from the Guru Panth. Upholding the high ideals of Sikhism, Ranjit Singh displayed great nobility of conduct in dealing with his fallen enemies. He treated the vanquished with leniency and kindness by granting them Jagirs for their maintenance. When the victorious army carried his flag through the streets of Peshawar, he instructed his Sardars to observe ethical restraints, in keeping with the Sikh tradition. They were not to damage any mosque, not to insult any women and not to destroy any crops. He tried his best to follow the Guru’s injunction: “Exercise forbearance in the midst of power, be humble in the midst of honour15. He was modest, humane and humble. Royal emblems of crown and throne were conspicuous by their absence in his Darbar. The coins of his kingdom were struck not in his own name but in the name of the Gurus. The currency were known as Nanakshahi.
The catholicity of Sikhism left its visible impact on the outlook and policy of Ranjit Singh. Religious bigotry, he knew, was incompatible with Sikh ideals. The ideals of unity of God, universal brotherhood and welfare of all (Sarbat da Bhalla) emphasised by the Gurus, were deeply embedded in his psyche. He granted complete freedom of expression and worship to all his subjects. He took full cognizance of the religious susceptibilities of the Hindus and the Muslims and did his best to win their love and loyalty. Important festivals of all communities were jointly and officially celebrated in his kingdom. He banned cow slaughter to honour the wishes of the Hindu subjects. Through genuine and heart-felt tolerance and large-hearted liberalism, which had its roots in the Sikh ethos, Ranjit Singh united the three principal communities, Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs in a strong bond of emotional integration16.
The power of the Khalsa kingdom was a sacred trust to be used for the well-being of the people. All posts in the Sikh kingdom were open to talent and merit. The Gurus had envisioned a socio-political order, free from the shackles of casteism and Brahamanical chauvinism. Ranjit Singh created a landmark in the Indian history when he recruited Mazhbis, the centuries old untouchables of the Hindu society as a regular component of his army.
Humane rule of Ranjit Singh was free from communal fanaticism. There were no forced conversions, no attempts at bloody revenge, no language controversies, no second class citizens, no repression, no bloodshed, no executions and no tortures. During his rule of four decades, Ranjit Singh did not sentence even person to death17.
The economy of the state rested on even keels. One tenth of the state revenue, amounting to nearly Rs. 20 Lakhs a year, was given away in charity. His charity was open to all faiths, without any discrimination. This was in compliance with the fifth Guru’s directive to the Sikhs to contribute Daswandh (one tenth) of their earnings towards charitable causes.
Ranjit Singh made a commendable attempt to govern his state by values of ‘Halemi Raj’ propounded by Guru Arjan. The Guru had visualised an egalitarian social order based on justice and freedom. With Sikh ethos in his psyche, Ranjit Singh translated this vision into practice.
The period following the annexation of Punjab was a time of historical convulsion, chaos and strife for the Sikhs. Their political backbone was broken and their morale was at the lowest ebb. Gurdwaras, the fount of Sikh power and inspiration had come under the control of the corrupt Mahants and the Pujaries. The British were aware that the Sikhs owed their strength and vigour to their religion. They wanted to usurp the control of their religious places in order to subvert their identity. D. Petrie, an Assistant Director, Criminal Intelligence, Government of India, in a confidential report on the “Development of Sikh Politics (1900-1911)” wrote:
“The British adopted a very strict and rigid policy detrimental to the growth of Sikhism. After annexation, Golden Temple, Amritsar, along with six other Gurdwaras and the Gurdwara at Tarn Taran were practically controlled by the British authorities through a manager of these Gurdwaras appointed by the British Government. The Waqf Act of 1861 gave the control and management of the holy places of the Hindus and Muslims to the communities concerned but in the case of the Sikh Gurdwaras, the Act was not applied on political grounds. The properties of Sikh places of worship were transferred and given over to the Udasi Mahants and others throughout the Punjab”.
The British wanted to make the Gurdwaras subservient to their patronage. This is evident from a letter written by Lt. Governor R.E. Egerton to Lord Ripon, the Viceroy on August 8, 1881. He wrote, “I think it will be politically dangerous to allow the management of Sikh temples to fall into the hands of a Committee, emancipated from government control, and trust your Excellency will resist to pass such orders in the case, as will enable to continue the system, which has worked successfully for more than thirty years”18.
It was under the Singh Sabha movement that the Sikhs were able to reassert their socio-religious identity and reaffirm their faith in the teachings of their Gurus. Guru Granth Sahib became a source and symbol of solidarity for them. Leaders of the movement like Gaini Ditt Singh, Bhai Gurmukh Singh, Bhai Mayya Singh, Bhai Jawahar Singh and Bhagat Lakshman Singh were men of ordinary means. Their claim to leadership lay in nothing except their unflinching commitment to the cause of the great Sikh tradition which the mass of the people understood very well. The Singh Sabha movement checked the growth of cults, schisms and sects among the Sikhs. Renascent literature produced by Bhai Vir Singh sought to revive the Sikh value system and restore Sikhism to its pristine glory. Gurdwara Reform Movement, an off-shoot of the Singh Sabha Movement, sought to restore the status of the Gurdwara as a pivotal institution of the Sikh religious system and assert the supremacy of the Guru Granth and the Guru Panth. Formation of the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee (S.G.P.C.), an elected body of the Sikh community, for the management of Gurdwaras was an important step towards the re-assertion of an independent religious identity of the Sikhs.
Liberation of the Gurdwaras re-established their theo-political status. It was from the precincts of he Darbar Sahib that the Akali Dal waged a struggle for the liberation of the country. In this struggle, the Guru, Gurbani and Gurdwara were the fount of inspiration for the Sikhs. Sardool Singh Kaveeshar, who was a leading freedom fighter observed, “A Sikh wants to fight his country’s battles from the vantage ground of his religion. Being of a religious trend of mind, he finds everything subordinate to his Dharma. Politics is nothing for him but a promising child of religion. A Sikh has not yet developed that sense of doubtful value that divides life into water-tight compartments and makes of religion in the West something different from one’s social and political life. For the Sikh politics and religion are one. He wants the freedom of his religion, he wants the freedom of his country but he knows that he cannot have one without the other. If religion is safe, he is sure to get back, sooner or later, the freedom of the country. In fact he regards religion as the strong post, from which one should start to get back the lost liberty, as in his opinion, the religious spirit alone can keep the freedom of a country safe, when once that has been won”19.
The Sikhs played a pioneering role in the struggle for country’s freedom on the basis and strength of their religious identity. The ideal of service and sacrifice for a righteous cause is deeply implanted in the Sikh psyche. The long, chain of martyrdoms in Sikh history have left an indelible imprint on the Sikh outlook.
Baba Kharak Singh, a veteran freedom fighter, who was fully nurtured in the Sikh tradition, once remarked, “In the fight for India’s freedom if you find a bullet in my back, do not count me as one amongst the Sikhs of the Gurus and do not cremate my dead body according to the Sikh rites. A disciple of the great Gurus is an ideal saint-soldier and is supposed to fight in the vanguard and face the bullets in the chest and not in his back. We the Sikhs shall never allow any foreigner to rule over our motherland and we shall brook no injustice”. He said this while presiding over the all India Sikh conference held in Lahore in 1929. A few days later, Lahore again was the venue of the historic session of the All India National Congress, which fixed complete independence for India, as its political goal. But the tremendous response, vigour and enthusiasm at the Sikh conference witnessed in the form of a five hundred thousand strong procession with Baba Kharak Singh leading it on elephant back from under the walls of the ancient fort of Lahore, was in sharp contrast to the Congress session. The Times, London described the Sikh conference as the most impressive spectacle of human congregation that put the Congress show into shame and shade’. A leading Congressman Pt. Madan Mohan Malviya was so impressed with the Sikh fervour for freedom that he went to the extent of saying that if we want the country to be free at the earliest, every Hindu family should have at least one Sikh member in it. The battle for India’s freedom was won with Sikhs in the forefront. Even though they constituted not more than 2% of the country’s population yet they contributed more than 80% share of sacrifices to the cause of freedom.
In the post-independence period, the Sikhs have been struggling hard to safeguard their socio-political identity. There has been a decline in the Sikh institutions as their ideological base has been eroded to a considerable extent. These institutions have also lost their representative character as these have been infiltrated by time-serving, unscrupulous and corrupt leadership. The dynamic institution of Guru-Panth, which sustained the community at all critical junctures, has become almost extinct. The Blue Star Attack on the Durbar Sahib, Amritsar and the anti-Sikh violence of 1984 constitute a dark chapter in Sikh history. Gruesome events of such great magnitude were undoubtedly, the result of ill-conceived policies of the Central leadership, but the dubious Akali leadership, too, has much to answer for before the bar of history.
The Sikh derive their sense of enterprise, their dynamism and history-making potential from the twin-institutions of Guru Granth, - Guru Panth. They have to re-afirm their faith in these two institutions in order to salvage their socio-political identity and give a new turn to the course of their history in the new century. The light of Guru Granth has to be fully manifested in the Guru Panth for the fulfillment of Guru Nanak’s mission, in the true sense of the word.
1. The Sikh Prayer.
2. ‘Remember God and follow the pat of righteousness’, Sukhmani Sahib.
3. G. Granth Sahib, P. 26.
4. Babar Vani.
5. G. Granth Sahib, P. 463.
6. Japuji Sahib.
7. G. Granth Sahib, P. 62.
8. G. Granth Sahib, P. 1422.
9. Babar Vani.
10. ‘God is not concerned with caste. Learn the ways of truthful living for one’s deeds proclaim one’s true status’. G. Granth Sahib, P. 1330.
11. Sri Rag.
12. Ruqaat-i-ud-Daula, Dasur-ul-Insha, Imperial Daily Dairies quoted by Kapur Singh in The Sikh Review (July, 1975).
13. Cunningham, J.D.; History of the Sikhs, (New Delhi, 1972), P. 79.
15. Guru Granth Sahib, P. 85.
16. Dhillon, G.S., Insights into Sikh Religion and History (Chandigarh, 2003), P. 85-110.
18. British Museum, Additional Manuscript No. 43592, Folio 300-301.
19. Kaveeshar, Sardool Singh, ‘The Akali Movement’ in Punjab, Past and Present Vol. VII, Part I (Punjabi University, Patiala), April, 1973, P. 159.
20. Fauja Singh, Eminent Freedom Fighters of Punjab, (Patiala, 1972), P. 155.
ęCopyright Institute of Sikh Studies, 2017, All