Historical Significance of Khadoor Sahib
Pher Vasaya Pher Aaan Satgur Khadoor
(Then the True Guru, the Son of Pheru came to abide in the village of Khadoor)
– Sri Guru Granth Sahib, p. 967
A small village of Khadoor near the old grand trunk road, which passed through Goindwal to Attari on its way from Delhi to Lahore, flashed to fame when Guru Angad, the second Sikh Guru made it his headquarters in 1539 A.D. It was from here he guided the destiny of the Sikhs for thirteen years (1539-1552 A.D). Ever since it has been considered an important centre of Sikhism which had been included in the land of Baba Nanak or Sikhs and written by Robert Needhum Crust, the Secretary or Asiatic Society, Calcutta.1
Khadoor Sahib is located 4 miles from Goindwal near Harike Pattan where the river Beas meets the river Satluj. According to the Khulasatut-Twarikh (1596 A.D, Punjabi University, Patiala, p.80), the river Beas after traversing 80 miles in the plains meets Satluj at village Boh, near Harike Pattan. The important villages near Khadoor Sahib are: Fatehabad, where a serai had been built during the Mughal times to lodge the army crossing the river. (Mahakosh Bhai Kahn Singh. Verowal is an important village where now Trehan and Bhalla descendants of the Gurus reside and they are mostly the owner of the village. Sangar was another important village visited by Guru Angad where a Gurdwara had been built to commemorate his visit.
Khadoor Sahib has four Gurdwaras connected with the life of Guru Angad, viz. 1) Gurdwara Tapiana Sahib where Guru Agad used to meditate, 2) Gurdwara Thada Sahib where the Guru used to sit, 3) Gurdwara Deorah Guru Angad Sahib- this is the main Gurdwara built in the memory of Guru, and; 4) Gurdwara Mall Akhare this is the place where the Guru used to watch the games of Youngsters. In a way Guru Angad initiated the training of the future armies of the Khalsa and perhaps due to the blessings of Guru Angad, Guru Nanak Dev University Amritsar has been winning the All India Sports Trophy for the last 7 years continuously.
The location of Khadoor Sahib was ideal for the conversion of Majha Jat peasantry who were mostly the followers of Sultan Sakhi Sarwar of cult of Devis. Guru Angad made pioneering efforts to bring the peasantry of this region in the Sikh fold. (First Takhat Mol headman of the village was converted). This effort.. was followed by the subsequent Gurus viz. Guru Amardas who made Goindwal, a Centre of Sikhism the fourth Guru, Ram Das, who founded Chak Guru now known as Amritsar and Guru Arjan, the fifth Guru who founded Taran Tarn. All these places are in Majha territory. It will, therefore, be not out of place to define the Majha territory and give the main qualities of Majha peasantry who were converted to Sikhism.
A Macfarquar writes in the Amritsar District Gazettteer, “The stronghold of the Sikh Jats is that part of the district which is known as the Majha. This is a term which is sometimes loosely used to denote the whole of the upper part of the Bari Doab, as distinguished from the Malwa, the country lying south of the Sutlej, and including most of Ludhiana, Patiala, Ferozepore. But a Sikh Jat of Amritsar is speaking of the Majha refers more particularly to that part of the Taran Tarn tehsil which lies below the old road from Attari to Goindwal and to the Kasur and part of the Chunian tehsils of Lahore.2
About the qualities of Majha Jats, it has been stated:
“The Sikh Jats of whom the Manjha Sikhs are the pick, are the finest of the Amritsar peasantry. In physique they are inferior to no race of peasants in the province and among them are men who in any country in the world would be deemed fine specimen of the human race. The Sikh Jat is generally tall and muscular with well shaped limbs, erect carriage and strongly marked and handsome features.”3
At another place it has been stated:
“They make admirable soldiers, when well led, inferior to no Indian troops, with more dogged courage than dash, steady in the field, and trustworthy in difficult circumstances”.4
As a result of the teachings of Guru Angad and other Sikh Gurus, the Majha peasantry beca me full fledged Khalsa. The youth of this region successfully challenged the foreign invaders. Nadir Shah was challenged and he was deprived of booty which he was carrying to his country. Ahmadshah Abdali was successfully pursued by the warriors of this region with the result that he was exhausted and could not annex Punjab to his Afghan Empire. In the later half of 18th century most of the persons who founded Misls and dominated distant areas of Punjab belonged to this region. For instance, Bhangis, Kanhiyas, Ramgarhias, Ahluwalias(Ahlu is a village in Lahore District, Pakistan) and a number of other Misaldars were from this area.
Sermon of Khadoor Sahib
Sermon of Khadur Sahib cannot be different from the teachings of Guru Nanak. When Guru Angad started missionary work in Khadoor, the entire area was following different creeds. The Hindus mostly followed Jawalaji and Muslims followed Sultan Sakhi Sarwar. Guru Angad emphasized the unity of God.
Guru preached that God is one, is omnipresent and He is all powerful. All the deities are His creations. He is the Supreme Lord who should only be worshipped. He is only one timeless, formless without fear and does not come in transmigration. Guru Angad says:
There is one God, the God of all gods,
The supreme God of souls
He who knoweth the secrets of the souls
and of God
Is a bright God himself and Nanak is his slave.5
Guru Angad emphasized significance of Guru who has played very important role between God and Man. Without Guru there is all confusion and darkness. With the help of the Guru, we can acquire supreme bliss and elevate ourselves to spiritual heights. Guru Angad writes in Asa Di Var
Were a hundred moon to rise and a
thousand suns to mount the sky
Even with such light there would be
appalling darkness without the Guru.6
We can love God only through repeating His name and meditation. Both these can be accomplished with the help of Guru. This world is true. The old idea which was current among Hindus was that this world is false, it is transitory and they wanted to escape this world. Guru Angad was deadly against escapism or asceticism. Guru Angad has stated:
“This world is the true one’s abode,
the true one, dwells therein
some by His order He absorbs.. in Himself
others by His order He destroyeth
Some at His pleasure He withdraweth
From others He caused to abide therein
It cannot be even told so from He will regenerate
Nanak to whom God revealeth Himself is.7
Not only this world is true, His creation is known also true which means all atmospheres and environment which have been created by God are true.
Those individuals who obtain God they become perfect because they follow the perfect. The Guru has explained this in detail in his hymn.
They are perfect bankers who have found the perfect one
They are ever unconcerned and abide in the love of the one God
Few dam obtain a sight of the Unfathomable Being
Nanak, if the perfect Guru, whose acts are
Perfect and whose words are perfect
Nake any one perfect, he will not decrease in weight.8
The spiritual exaltation is the goal of life Guru Angad has described this condition in the following words.
To see without eyes, to hear without ears
To walk without feet, to work without hands
To speak without a tongue that is to be dead
Nanak he who accepteth the will of God shall
be united with Him.9
Addiction to pleasure is incompatible with true devotion:
We see, and hear, and know that God cannot be
found in worldly pleasures:
How can man without feet, arms and eyes run to embrace Him.
Make feet out of fear, hands out of love, and eyes out o understanding.
Nanak saith, in this way, O wise women, shall you meet the Bridegroom.10
The Guru’s teachings are incorporated in Grubani are superior to the Vedic literature which deals with legends of the Gods. Guru writes:
The readers of the Veds have brought tales and legends of the gods,
And defined sins and virtues.
For what men give they receive, and for
that they receive they give, and they
are accordingly born again either in hell…or heaven.
The world wandereth in doubt as to what are
high and low castes and species:
But the ambrosial word of the Guru speaketh
of the Real Thing, and bringeth divine
knowledge and meditation:
The pious utter it, the pious know it,
they who possess divine knowledge meditate
on it, and act according to it.
God created the world by His fiat, and
Restraineth it thereby; He beholdeth
Everything subject to it.
Nanak, if man’s pride depart ere he die, he
shall be deemed of account.11
The nectar of the Name of God is within ourselves. It can be realized with the grace of Guru. Guru clearly stated:
They who possess the greatness of Thy
Name O God are happy at heart
Nanak there is only one nectar, there is none other.
Nanak, that nectar is the heart, but it is
Only obtained by the favour of the Guru,
They who were so destined from the beginning qualify it with delight.12
Service with ego would bring no fruit because the Master would not be pleased with such service. Guru said:
“When a servant while performing service is proud and quarrelsome,
And talked too much, he pleased not his Master
If he efface himself and perform service he shall obtain some honour
Nanak who longed for God shall meet Him
And his longing shall be acceptable.13
Ego is great hindrance in spiritual elevation. It has to be removed Guru Angad asserts that ego is removed with the Grace of God. He has stated in Asa Di Var:
It is the nature of pride that it produceth pride
This pride is a trammel
Subjecteth to repeated transmigration
What is the origin of ego by what device it shall depart.
For ego or pride it is ordained that man wander according to his previous acts.
Ego is chronic disease, but there also a medicine for it in the heart
If God bestows His grace, man shall avail himself of the Guru’s instructions
Saith Nanak, hear oye men, in this way trouble shall depart.14
Guru Angad has deplored the perversion of his age in the following words:
The beggar is styled a king, the blackhead a pandit
The blind a connoisoeur, that is how people speak
The wicked man is styled as a Chaudhary and liar is deemed perfect
Nanak this is the way o iron age how to distinguish men is known through the Guru’s instructions.15
1. Select documents on Partition of Punjab, Kirpal Singh, Delhi, 1991, p. 238
2. Punjab district Gazetteers, Amritsar District Gazetteer, M. Macfarquar, Controller Printing and Stationary, Chandigarh, 1947, p. 45-46.
3. Ibid; p.46.
4. Ibid, p.47
5. The Adi Granth p.469
ਏਕ ਕ੍ਰਿਸਨੰ ਸਰਬ ਦੇਵਾ ਦੇਵ ਦੇਵਾ ਤ ਆਤਮਾ ॥
ਆਤਮਾ ਬਾਸੁਦੇਵਸਿ´ ਜੇ ਕੋ ਜਾਣੈ ਭੇਉ ॥
ਨਾਨਕੁ ਤਾ ਕਾ ਦਾਸੁ ਹੈ ਸੋਈ ਨਿਰੰਜਨ ਦੇਉ ॥ ੪ ॥
6. Ibid p. 463
ਜੇ ਸਉ ਚੰਦਾ ਉਗਵਹਿ ਸੂਰਜ ਚੜਹਿ ਹਜਾਰ ॥
ਏਤੇ ਚਾਨਣ ਹੋਦਿਆਂ ਗੁਰ ਬਿਨੁ ਘੋਰ ਅੰਧਾਰ ॥
7. Ibid p. 463
ਇਹੁ ਜਗੁ ਸਚੈ ਕੀ ਹੈ ਕੋਠੜੀ ਸਚੇ ਕਾ ਵਿਚਿ ਵਾਸੁ ॥
ਇਕਨ@ਾ ਹੁਕਮਿ ਸਮਾਇ ਲਏ ਇਕਨ@ਾ ਹੁਕਮੇ ਕਰੇ ਵਿਣਾਸੁ ॥
ਇਕਨ@ਾ ਭਾਣੈ ਕਢਿ ਲਏ ਇਕਨ@ਾ ਮਾਇਆ ਵਿਚਿ ਨਿਵਾਸੁ ॥
ਏਵ ਭਿ ਆਖਿ ਨ ਜਾਪਈ ਜਿ ਕਿਸੈ ਆਣੇ ਰਾਸਿ ॥
ਨਾਨਕ ਗੁਰਮੁਖਿ ਜਾਣੀਐ ਜਾ ਕਉ ਆਪਿ ਕਰੇ ਪਰਗਾਸੁ ॥
8. Ibid p.146
ਸੇਈ ਪੂਰੇ ਸਾਹ ਜਿਨੀ ਪੂਰਾ ਪਾਇਆ ॥ ਅਠੀ ਵੇਪਰਵਾਹ ਰਹਨਿ ਇਕਤੈ ਰੰਗਿ ॥
ਦਰਸਨਿ ਰੂਪਿ ਅਥਾਹ ਵਿਰਲੇ ਪਾਈਅਹਿ ॥ ਕਰਮਿ ਪੂਰੈ ਪੂਰਾ ਗੁਰੂ ਪੂਰਾ ਜਾ ਕਾ ਬੋਲੁ ॥
ਨਾਨਕ ਪੂਰਾ ਜੇ ਕਰੇ ਘਟੈ ਨਾਹੀ ਤੋਲੁ ॥
9. Ibid , P.139
ਅਖੀ ਬਾਝਹੁ ਵੇਖਣਾ ਵਿਣੁ ਕੰਨਾ ਸੁਨਣਾ ॥ ਪੈਰਾ ਬਾਝਹੁ ਚਲਣਾ ਵਿਣੁ ਹਥਾ ਕਰਣਾ ॥
ਜੀਭੈ ਬਾਝਹੁ ਬੋਲਣਾ ਇਉ ਜੀਵਤ ਮਰਣਾ ॥ ਨਾਨਕ ਹੁਕਮੁ ਪਛਾਣਿ ਕੈ ਤਉ ਖਸਮੈ ਮਿਲਣਾ ॥ ੧ ॥
10. Ibid, p. 139
ਦਿਸੈ ਸੁਣੀਏ ਜਾਣੀਏ ਸਾਉ ਨਾ ਪਾਇਆ ਜਾਇ ॥ ਰੁਹਲਾ ਟੁੰਡਾ ਅੰਧੁਲਾ ਕਿਉ ਗਲਿ ਲਗੈ ਧਾਇ ॥
ਭੈ ਕੇ ਚਰਣ ਕਰ ਭਾਵ ਕੇ ਲੋਇਣ ਸੁਰਤਿ ਕਰੇਇ ॥ ਨਾਨਕ ਕਹੈ ਸਿਆਣੀਏ ਇਵ ਕੰਤ ਮਿਲਾਵਾ ਹੋਇ ॥
11. Ibid p. 1243
ਕਥਾ ਕਹਾਣੀ ਬੇਦਂØੀ ਆਣੀ ਪਾਪੁ ਪੁੰਨੁ ਬੀਚਾਰੁ ॥ ਦੇ ਦੇ ਲੈਣਾ ਲੈ ਲੈ ਦੇਣਾ ਨਰਕਿ ਸੁਰਗਿ ਅਵਤਾਰ ॥
ਉਤਮ ਮਧਿਮ ਜਾਤੀਂ ਜਿਨਸੀ ਭਰਮਿ ਭਵੈ ਸੰਸਾਰੁ ॥
ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤ ਬਾਣੀ ਤਤੁ ਵਖਾਣੀ ਗਿਆਨ ਧਿਆਨ ਵਿਚਿ ਆਈ ॥
ਗੁਰਮੁਖਿ ਆਖੀ ਗੁਰਮੁਖਿ ਜਾਤੀ ਸੁਰਤਂØੀ ਕਰਮਿ ਧਿਆਈ ॥
ਹੁਕਮੁ ਸਾਜਿ ਹੁਕਮੈ ਵਿਚਿ ਰਖੈ ਹੁਕਮੈ ਅੰਦਰਿ ਵੇਖੈ ॥
ਨਾਨਕ ਅਗਹੁ ਹਉਮੈ ਤੁਟੈ ਤਾਂ ਕੋ ਲਿਖੀਐ ਲੇਖੈ ॥
12. Ibid p.1238
ਜਿਨ ਵਡਿਆਈ ਤੇਰੇ ਨਾਮ ਕੀ ਤੇ ਰਤੇ ਮਨ ਮਾਹਿ ॥
ਨਾਨਕ ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤੁ ਏਕੁ ਹੈ ਦੂਜਾ ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤੁ ਨਾਹਿ ॥
ਨਾਨਕ ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤੁ ਮਨੈ ਮਾਹਿ ਪਾਈਐ ਗੁਰ ਪਰਸਾਦਿ ॥
ਤਿਨ@ੀ ਪੀਤਾ ਰੰਗ ਸਿਉ ਜਿਨ@ ਕਉ ਲਿਖਿਆ ਆਦਿ ॥
13. Ibid p. 446
ਚਾਕਰੁ ਲਗੈ ਚਾਕਰੀ ਨਾਲੇ ਗਾਰਬੁ ਵਾਦੁ ॥ ਗਲਾ ਕਰੇ ਘਣੇਰੀਆ ਖਸਮ ਨ ਪਾਏ ਸਾਦੁ ॥
ਆਪੁ ਗਵਾਇ ਸੇਵਾ ਕਰੇ ਤਾ ਕਿਛੁ ਪਾਏ ਮਾਨੁ ॥ ਨਾਨਕ ਜਿਸ ਨੋ ਲਗਾ ਤਿਸੁ ਮਿਲੈ ਲਗਾ ਸੋ ਪਰਵਾਨੁ ॥
14. Ibid p.466
ਹਉਮੈ ਏਹਾ ਜਾਤਿ ਹੈ ਹਉਮੈ ਕਰਮ ਕਮਾਹਿ ॥ ਹਉਮੈ ਏਈ ਬੰਧਨਾ ਫਿਰਿ ਫਿਰਿ ਜੋਨੀ ਪਾਹਿ ॥
ਹਉਮੈ ਕਿਥਹੂ ਊਪਜੈ ਕਿਤੁ ਸੰਜਮਿ ਇਹ ਜਾਇ ॥ ਹਉਮੈ ਏਹੋ ਹੁਕਮੁ ਹੈ ਪਇਐ ਕਿਰਤਿ ਫਿਰਾਹਿ ॥
ਹਉਮੈ ਦੀਰਘ ਰੋਗੁ ਹੈ ਦਾਰੂ ਭੀ ਇਸੁ ਮਾਹਿ ॥ ਕਿਰਪਾ ਕਰੇ ਜੇ ਆਪਣੀ ਤਾ ਗੁਰ ਕਾ ਸਬਦੁ ਕਮਾਹਿ ॥
ਨਾਨਕੁ ਕਹੈ ਸੁਣਹੁ ਜਨਹੁ ਇਤੁ ਸੰਜਮਿ ਦੁਖ ਜਾਹਿ ॥ ੨ ॥
15. Ibid p. 1288
ਨਾਉ ਫਕੀਰੈ ਪਾਤਿਸਾਹੁ ਮੂਰਖ ਪੰਡਿਤੁ ਨਾਉ ॥ ਅੰਧੇ ਕਾ ਨਾਉ ਪਾਰਖੂ ਏਵੈ ਕਰੇ ਗੁਆਉ ॥
ਇਲਤਿ ਕਾ ਨਾਉ ਚਉਧਰੀ ਕੂੜੀ ਪੂਰੇ ਥਾਉ ॥ ਨਾਨਕ ਗੁਰਮੁਖਿ ਜਾਣੀਐ ਕਲਿ ਕਾ ਏਹੁ ਨਿਆਉ ॥ ੧ ॥
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