Educational Contribution of Guru Arjun Dev Ji
Dr Amrit Kaur Raina
ਪੋਥੀ ਪਰਮੇਸਰ ਕਾ ਥਾਨੁ॥ The (Holy) book is the abode of God (p 1226). This single line of Guru Arjan Dev ji is sufficient to high light his contribution to the field of Education. By this single line, he has taken his disciples on the path of education. After the compilation of Sri Guru Granth Shaib, its study became a driving force for the spread of Education among the Sikhs. Its study became the vehicle of mass communication imparting spiritual, mental, moral, emotional, aesthetic, cultural, nourishment for the alround development of the personality of the people at large. According to Dr Leitner1 (pp.122-125) "This model book of spiritual and temporal instruction became the curriculum itself". Guru Arjan Dev has done tremendous service to the humanity at large by compiling Guru Granth Sahib, a light house of Indian Spiritual, philosophical knowledge, cultural heritage, musical traditions. It contains priceless pearls of knowledge of the purest rays serene, containing not only the Bani of six Gurus but of 31 Bhagats and Saints from different regions of India, castes, creeds and religions. Paying tribute to this ancestral light house of knowledge, the Great Guru says:
ਪੀਊ ਦਾਦੇ ਕਾ ਖੋਲਿ ਡਿਠਾ ਖਜਾਨਾ ॥ ਤਾ ਮੇਰੈ ਮਨਿ ਭਇਆ ਨਿਧਾਨਾ ॥ ੧ ॥
ਰਤਨ ਲਾਲ ਜਾ ਕਾ ਕਛੂ ਨ ਮੋਲੁ ॥ ਭਰੇ ਭੰਡਾਰ ਅਖੂਟ ਅਤੋਲ ॥
"When I opened the treasure house of my masters;
How immensely was my mind pleased at this spiritual heritage.
Neither pearls nor the rubies are the price,
For the brimful storehouse inexhaustible and beyond measure. – Guru Granth Sahib, p. 185-86
After Guru Nanak Dev and Guru Angad Dev, Guru Arjan Dev contributed immensely to the evolution of Sikh Educational policy. Since its compilation, Sri Guru Granth Sahib has become an indispensible part of the Sikh Educational curriculum. Written in Punjabi, the mother tongue of Punjabis, it took education to the doorsteps sikh of the masses. It was made imperative by Guru Arjan Dev ji for every Sikh boy or girl, man or woman to be able to read and study Sri Guru Granth Sahib. Small Pothis of Gurbani were prepared and distributed among the people to study. Many small sayings came to be remembered by educated and uneducated people orally as they formed a part of morning and evening congregations which guided them in every day life. Its simple verses were included in the syllabus of small school children attached to the Gurudwaras . Even in modern age, Gurbani verses are included in some of text books. Lot of research work is being done on Sikhism on the basis of Sri Guru Granth Sahib all over the world by scholars. It is a main source of culture, religion, literature which binds the Punjabis and the Sikhs all over the world.
Conception of Education
Guru Arjan Dev has given definitions of education at several places in his Bani and the role it plays in life. Human body is a shrine of God in which are hidden precious pearls of knowledge. According to modern educationists to explore and develop those potentialities, to make inner amount to outer education. This is what Guru Arjan Dev says:
ਰਤਨੁ ਅਮੋਲੁ ਰਿਦੇ ਮਹਿ ਜਾਨੁ ॥ ਅਪਨੀ ਵਸਤੁ ਤੂ ਆਪਿ ਪਛਾਨੁ ॥
"This valuable jewel know in thy heart to lie.
Thy own substance shouldst thou realize."– Sri Guru Granth Sahib , p. 892
There are precious pearls of knowledge hidden in the mind which need to be recognized and explored. It is with the help of Guru that education enables a man to develop his potentialities:
ਬਿਨੁ ਗੁਰ ਦੀਖਿਆ ਕੈਸੇ ਗਿਆਨੁ ॥
How without the Master's instruction may enlightenment come?
Sri Guru Granth Sahib, p. 1140
Attainment of knowledge is not possible without the Guru .This makes Guruji's educational process a bi-polar process where Guru leads the disciple on the path of enlightenment helping him to explore and develop his latent faculties and inner potentialities which matches with the modern conceptions of the educationists like Vivekanand, Tagore, Rousseau, Frobel and Dewey. Guruji is well aware of the role of education in life. Nobody can become an enlightened person a scholar or a seer without education.
ਬਿਨੁ ਬਿਦਿਆ ਕਹਾ ਕੋਈ ਪੰਡਿਤ ॥
How without learning may one becomes a scholar.
Sri Guru Granth Sahib, p. 1140
There is a divine spark in man. The aim of education is to awaken the divine that slumbers in man. Self- realisation and self- manifestation is the aim of educational system of the Gurus. That is why Guru Arjan says:
ਬਿਦਿਆ ਤਪੁ ਜੋਗੁ ਪ੍ਰਭ ਧਿਆਨੁ ॥ ਗਿਆਨੁ ਸ੍ਰੇਸਟ ਊਤਮ ਇਸਨਾਨੁ ॥
Knowledge, merit of penance, yoga and contemplation of the Lord,
Holy realization, merit of purifying holy baths.
Sri Guru Granth Sahib, p. 296
To acquire education is a Sadhana, a sacred act of meditation on godly virtues. It is a tapsya, yoga, meditation on the divine name of God. It is just like bathing in the sacred ambrosial nectar of knowledge. After bathing in the sacred ocean of knowledge. One becomes enlightened. Knowledge illumines says Geeta. Emphasising the importance of acquisition of knowledge, the fifth Guru says, "Of all the elements, the most significant is the element of knowledge.
ਸਗਲ ਤਤ ਮਹਿ ਤਤੁ ਗਿਆਨੁ ॥
The essence of all enlightenment is enlightenment about the self.
Sri Guru Granth Sahib, p. 1182
With the acquisition of knowledge one becomes enlightened. The light of knowledge develops the spiritual, mental, moral, physical faculties of the pupil. This sacred essence of knowledge dispels ignorance and makes the students intellectually wealthy and strong. "ਸੋ ਧਨਵੰਤਾ ਜਿਸੁ ਬੁਧਿ ਬਿਬੇਕ ॥" He is truly rich who discriminating understanding bears. (P1150) Consciousness, intellect and wisdom is developed with the acquisition of knowledge. "ਸੁਰਤਿ ਮਤਿ ਬੁਧਿ ਪਰਗਾਸੁ ॥" Illumined is my understanding, intellect and realization. (p. 889) But mere acquisition of bookish knowledge is not enough. It is just a load on the mind. "ਕਥਨੀ ਬਦਨੀ ਪੜਿ ਪੜਿ ਭਾਰੁ ॥" All other narrative and utterance is only a burden on the self. (p. 412) Real education must make a man Brahmgyani , the ideal man of Guru's conception, a spiritually , morally, mentally enlightened person.
Role of the Guru
Books teach but personality educates. Guru is the pivot around whom the whole educational policy of the Guru revolves.
ਫੂਟੋ ਆਂਡਾ ਭਰਮ ਕਾ ਮਨਹਿ ਭਇਓ ਪਰਗਾਸੁ ॥
ਕਾਟੀ ਬੇਰੀ ਪਗਹ ਤੇ ਗੁਰਿ ਕੀਨੀ ਬੰਦਿ ਖਲਾਸੁ ॥
"The egg of superstition hath burst, The mind is illuminated
The Guru has cut the fetters, and freed the captive feet
Sri Guru Granth Sahib, p. 1002
In Sukhmani Sahib, Guru Arjan Dev has fully enumerated the role of true teacher in life and the qualities he should possess:
ਸਤਿ ਪੁਰਖੁ ਜਿਨਿ ਜਾਨਿਆ ਸਤਿਗੁਰੁ ਤਿਸ ਕਾ ਨਾਉ ॥
He is the true Preceptor who the holy Supreme Being has realized.
Sri Guru Granth Sahib, p. 286
The Guru of Guru Arjan Dev's conception is not an ordinary person. He is spiritually evolved mentally illuminated. Imbued with spiritual fervour - he enkindles disciples soul and leads him to the mansion of God (p. 274)
Guru Arjan Dev considers God as his supreme Guru (p. 864) who is the perennial source of all knowledge, wisdom and spiritualism. Meditating on his beauties and qualities through name meditation, One can develop Godly qualities in oneself. One becomes like the one whom he worships. But everybody may not be able to adopt God as Guru directly. For ordinary people God expresses his Guruship through enlightened personalities One's own inner Atma, word, nature and revealed books. The Gurus regards the word as Guru. It is Gyan Guru, Nad and Ved:
ਬਾਣੀ ਗੁਰੂ ਗੁਰੂ ਹੈ ਬਾਣੀ ਵਿਚਿ ਬਾਣੀ ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤੁ ਸਾਰੇ ॥
ਗੁਰੁ ਬਾਣੀ ਕਹੈ ਸੇਵਕੁ ਜਨੁ ਮਾਨੈ ਪਰਤਖਿ ਗੁਰੂ ਨਿਸਤਾਰੇ ॥
Bani is the Guru and the Guru is the Bani.
In Bani are enshrined all the nectars divine.
Sri Guru Granth Sahib, p. 82
Sabad embodied in the Guru Granth Sahib is illuminating the path of innumerable people all over the world. Guru Arjan Dev ji considers Sadh Sangat (association with the pious) as the academy of the true Guru where one is instructed in the merits of God. The vices are removed and virtues are cultivated. The ignorant become wise (p. 1146) Sadh Sangat not only helps in spiritual progress but also in social and civic efficiency. How Sadh sangat trains one in social and civic efficiency has been beautifully described by the fifth Guru.
ਬਿਸਰਿ ਗਈ ਸਭ ਤਾਤਿ ਪਰਾਈ ॥ ਜਬ ਤੇ ਸਾਧਸੰਗਤਿ ਮੋਹਿ ਪਾਈ ॥
ਨਾ ਕੋ ਬੈਰੀ ਨਹੀ ਬਿਗਾਨਾ ਸਗਲ ਸੰਗਿ ਹਮ ਕਉ ਬਨਿ ਆਈ ॥
I have forgotten to speak or think ill of anyone.
Ever since I learnt to live in the company of Good and holy saints.
No one is my enemy nor is any one stranger to me.
I get on well (am on good terms) with one and all.
Sri Guru Granth Sahib, p. 1300
The Gurus regard nature as a source of education. God has installed Himself in nature to view the play of His Creation. God Himself is the Eternal Spring and all His manifestation is his garden. Nature inspires devotional reveries which is the essence of joy and peace.
There is God as well as Devil in man. When godly virtues in man are developed man hears the voice of his inner Atma, the self, the inner voice. The indwelling divine, the real self in man teaches him through the gentle voice of conscience. "My mind is the Guru who has instructed me in the wisdom." Says Guru Gobind Singh (Dasam Granth, p. 73) when man recognizes his higher self, the divinity in himself, he is able to differentiate between right and wrong, Good and bad, virtue and vice and walks on the right path. Here self becomes his Guru.
Spiritual and Moral education:
God realisation and God manifestation being the aim of Guru Arjan's educational system, inculcation of moral, spiritual values in life are emphasized. For the inculcation of higher values in life, mediation of God's name, study of Gurbani and other religious scriptures and congregational singing of Gurbani Katha and Kirtan are emphasized in morning and evening congregations. Whole of Sukhmani Sahib emphasises meditation of God's name, value of Sadhsangat and the concept of Brahm Gyani, Oh, man meditate and meditate over the name of God and your thoughts and deeds will become pure. (p. 226). It is panacea for all ills. Through a daily participation in morning and evening congregational singing, Katha and Kirtan the truth of teachings of the Gurus dawns upon the mind and one learns the eternal values of life preached by the Gurus. This listening of the congregational music and Katha sublimates one's life and leads to spiritual and moral development.
In Sukhmani Sahib, the ideal man of Guru Arjan Dev ji is called Brahmgyani, whose moral and spiritual values are fully developed. This spiritually enlightened ideal man of the Guru is the purest of the purest ray serene. His ambrosial eyes shed nectar on all. He is nourished by divine knowledge. He lives like a lotus flower among the impurities of life. He is one with the formless Lord. He is like a fully blossomed flower who spreads his fragrance al around making the world a beautiful place to live in. He is a saint, a philosopher, a king and a recluse rolled in one. For the Spiritual and moral development of the humanity at large, Guru Arjan Dev ji has put four ingredients in the salver of Guru Granth Sahib which are truth, contentment, right thinking and the nectar name of God Divine. Whosoever develops the moral and spiritual values in life crosses the ocean of life.
Chastity is strictly emphasised by Guru. Wild passions are to be kept under control. Intoxicants are strictly prohibited. In the modern age inhuman crime of molestation of women is on the increase, seeing which our heads hang in shame. This sane advice of the Guru can help us in this direction.
ਜੈਸਾ ਸੰਗੁ ਬਿਸੀਅਰ ਸਿਉ ਹੈ ਰੇ ਤੈਸੋ ਹੀ ਇਹੁ ਪਰ ਗ੍ਰਿਹੁ ॥
The company of another woman is venomous like a snake.
Sri Guru Granth Sahib, p. 403
Content of Education
According to Dr Leitner2 in the primary schools attached with the Gurudwaras , the teachings of these subjects were emphasized , - the study of Japji Sahib and other Banis of the Gurus, the learning of Punjabi language, inculcation of moral values in life , celebration of festivals , earning of livelihood through honest means, teachings of arithmetic , physical education, study of religious scriptures ( PP 79/185) According to Dr Leitner3 , after the compilation of Guru Granth Sahib , the source of spiritual, moral, temporal education, it became the curriculum itself (PP 123-125). The children and adults were made to remember verses from Gurbani. Spiritual and moral education was imparted to the people in the morning and evening congregations through Katha and Kirtan. For the Guru, Kirtan, musical congregational singing of Gurbani is like an invaluable gem, full of bliss and deep in qualities of spiritual joy, transcendental bliss. It must have formed a part of his curriculum.
ਨਾਨਕ ਸੁਖੁ ਪਾਇਆ ਹਰਿ ਕੀਰਤਨਿ ਮਿਟਿਓ ਸਗਲ ਕਲੇਸਾ ॥
Music is a priceless Jewel,
It produces joy, and all the sorrows depart. Sri Guru Granth Sahib, p. 213
Guru Nanak made mother tongue Punjabi, the vehicle of mass education which helped him to take education to the doors of people. This tradition was carried on by the rest of the Gurus also Guru Arjan's own contribution to the development of Punjabi language is unrivalled. In Guru Granth sahib 5871 sabads are included out of which 2218 belong to Guru ji. Sri Guru Granth Sahib compiled by him is still the source of Punjabi language, Literature, poetry, religion and culture which binds the Punjabis all over the world. He wrote Bavan Akhari for teaching alphabet to children based on Gurbani quotations :
1. Chacha – ਚਚਾ ਚਰਨ ਕਮਲ ਗੁਰ ਲਾਗਾ] (p. 254)
2. Dada –ਦਦਾ ਦਾਤਾ ਏਕੁ ਹੈ ਸਭ ਕਉ ਦੇਵਨਹਾਰ ॥ (p. 257)
3. Baba –ਬਬਾ ਬ੍ਰਹਮੁ ਜਾਨਤ ਤੇ ਬ੍ਰਹਮਾ ॥(p. 258)
Guru Arjan received education in his childhood not only in Punjabi but also in Hindi and Persian. So the Guru was not averse to the learning of other languages according to the needs of the time.
In those days when printing facilities were not available, Guru Arjan Dev ji wrote Guru Granth Sahib in his own hand writing with the help of Bhai Gurdas. Many hand written copies of Guru Granth Sahib were made. Many hands written pothies of Gurbani came to be written and distributed among the masses. Hence calligraphy became an art and children were specially trained to write beautiful Punjabi.
Biography written by Guru Angad Dev Ji became a great favourite with the followers of the Gurus. Stories from the Biography came to be narrated in the congregation which gave birth to storytelling method of teaching in the schools. The teaching of religious literature was emphasised.
Amritsar became a centre of trade and commerce where fifty two trades were established. For commercial purposes, learning of arithmetic became essential as stated by Dr. Leitner (P 79 Part -11)
Body being the vehicle of the soul, must be kept in fit position. Guru Angad Dev ji started the tradition of providing physical education to the children.Visualising the needs of the time, Guru Arjan Dev started the tradition of imparting physical education and training in arms to Guru Hargobind and his companions.
Education for Trade and Commerce
ਉਦਮੁ ਕਰੇਦਿਆ ਜੀਉ ਤੂੰ ਕਮਾਵਦਿਆ ਸੁਖ ਭੁੰਚੁ ॥
ਧਿਆਇਦਿਆ ਤੂੰ ਪ੍ਰਭੂ ਮਿਲੁ ਨਾਨਕ ਉਤਰੀ ਚਿੰਤ ॥
You Live your life making earnest efforts
And make your life happy through rightful earnings.
Meet Thy Lord through contemplation
And your worries will be dispelled.
Sri Guru Granth Sahib, p. 522
Guru Arjan Dev ji was not a stay home philosopher. According to him, honest hard labour cultivated brain , developed social qualities, made individual self-dependent and took him to be near God like Bhai Lalo. Like the modern educationists, Guru Arjan Dev's educational philosophy prepares the student to be self- dependent through efficiency in some trade and commerce. He inspires his Sikhs to work hard to achieve material prosperity.
According to Dr. Niharanjan Rai4 (p. 40), the building of the town of Amritsar by Guru Ram Dass and Guru Arjan Dev ji contributed a lot in the development of trade and commerce. Guru- ka- bazaar became the hub of industrial commercial activities. People belonging to different communities and religions were made to settle at Amritsar. Fifty two trades in agriculture, trade commerce carpentry and embroidery etc were started. No work was considered mean. This gave a strong monitory basis to the community. Earning one's livelihood through hard, honest labour became an integral part of Punjabi culture. According to Dr Hari Ram Gupta and Principal Teja Singh, Guru Arjan Dev encouraged horse trade and started sending Sikhs to Kabul, Kandhar and Iran which made them enterprising and fearless. This spirit of trading and settling down in different countries has become a permanent feature of Sikhism. Even in modern times they are settled in every nook and corner of the world holding key positions. They have contributed a lot in the progress and development of various countries like Canada, America, England etc.
Social Reconstruction and National Integration
Guru Arjan Dev ji was a great prophet of secularism. He stood for synthesis of religions, peaceful co- existence and national integration. "I have be-freinded all and I am companion of all (p. 1299). He implemented this saying practically while editing Guru Granth Sahib. He has done tremendous service to humanity at large by compiling Sri Guru Granth Sahib which is the spiritual cultural wealth of India in which he has included not only the hymns of his predecessors but also sacred writings of other Indian saints imbued with divine love. These saints belong to different castes, creeds and provinces. Jaidev was a Brahman , Sadhna was a butcher, Kabir a weaver, Baba Farid a Muslim Sufi Saint ,Ravidass a cobbler . They belonged to different parts of the country. Jaidev was a Bengali., Namdev was a Maharastrian, Kabir belonged to Banaras , Namdev Trilochan to Bombay , Dhana to Rajputana. The foundation stone of Harmandir Sahib was laid down by a Muslim Saint Sai Miyan Mir – a rare privilege for the Muslim community. Sri Guru Granth Sahib is the only religious scripture in the world which promoted for National Integration through inter- father dialogue including the Banis of Saints of other religions.
The four doors of Harmandir Sahib were thrown open to all the castes and creeds. One may be Brahmin, Kshtariya, Vaish or Sudra can enter the golden temple through any door and the Guru's message is common for all.
ਕੋਈ ਬੋਲੈ ਰਾਮ ਰਾਮ ਕੋਈ ਖੁਦਾਇ ॥ ਕੋਈ ਸੇਵੈ ਗੁਸਈਆ ਕੋਈ ਅਲਾਹਿ ॥
Some call God by the name of Rama, Some worship him calling Khuda, Hindus worship him calling Gusaniya and Muslims call him Allah. Sri Guru Granth Sahib, p. 885
But it is one and the same thing . This synthesis of religion embodied in Guru Granth Sahib can pave the way for peaceful Co- existence, secularism and national integration in the modern world which is the need of the hour.
The Guru made practical efforts for social reconstruction and welfare of society which he achieved through organising sangat and pangat while building of Harmandir Sahib by the co-operative efforts and contribution of Das Wandh (one tenth of one's income)under the supervision of Baba Budha . He inculcated the spirit of social service, dignity of labour by his own example of serving the sangat along with his wife Mata Ganga. The tradition of twenty four hours langar began. He not only emphasised contribution for the welfare of society but also manual labour like cleaning the floors, preparing meals, serving water, which tradition is being carried on by the Sikhs even in the modern times.
Cultural, Emotional, Aesthetic development:-
For Cultural , emotional, aesthetic development of his disciples, Guru Arjan Dev has laid great stress on the musical recitation of Gurbani. This musical recitation not only provides aesthetic enjoyment through name meditation, literary and musical elements but holds before the common people the cherished ideals, traditions and culture of the land. These literary musical gatherings seem to elevate their characters and bring strength and solace to their mind in the midst of the sorrows and struggles of their day to day life. Fighting the struggles of life in a spirit of Chardi Kala they reconcile with the will of God, like their Guru who while sitting on a hot burning plate while hot burning sand was being poured on him could sing sweetly "Sweet is Thy will, oh Lord!, I am encircled by the peaceful waves of Thy name." When the ever protecting Lord is protecting me by his ambrosial waves then why to grieve and be afraid". By his personal example and supreme sacrifice he breathed a new spiritual emotional vitality in the minds of his disciples. Ones religion and culture is not to be sacrificed even at the altar of death. His personal example and optimistic sayings of Chardi Kala keep the Sikhs emotionally balanced and stable. They were bricked alive, sawed, boiled and burnt alive but did not falter or stumble. Even in the modern times, Bhagat Singh, Raj Guru and Sukhdev could kiss the rope with which they were being hanged and sing "Oh mother dye my wearing garment with thy saffron colour, the colour of sacrifice."
The Guru Granth Sahib compiled by him has become a great religious, cultural binding force for the Sikhs all over the world. A Sikh may be living in any corner of the world, he bows before Guru Granth Sahib considers it as his eternal Guru, builds Gurudwara and carries on langar and sewa in the name of the Gurus. He belongs to his roots wherever he is. It is the great religious, cultural force of Gurbani which binds the Sikhs into a well knit community all over the world. He considers it his proud privilege to visit Harmandir Sahib which is built in a pool of ambrosial water holds its head high looking like Golden lotus flower amidst the impurities of the world, is an immense source of celestial spiritual peace and bliss to the visitors. Sukhmani Sahib composed by the Guru is really a source of celestial mental peace vibrating positive thoughts which elevates the mind and help in alround development of personality.
Training in arms
The Peaceful martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev was a milestone which turned the pages of history of Punjab . The nation was groaning under the tyranny and oppression of the Mughalas. In self-defence the Sikhs took to arms. Sri Guru Arjan Dev ji in his last message to his son and successor ( Guru) Hargobind asked him to sit fully armed on his throne and maintain an army to the best of his ability.6 His penetrating eyes had already visualized the needs of the time and he had started giving military training to Hargobind and other boys of his age. He employed highly skilled and accomplished warriors to build up the nucleus of Hargobind's Army. According to the instructions of his father the young Hargobind took to the seat of his father with two swords girded round his waist, one to symbolise spiritual power and the other temporal power. Guru Hargobind was just thirteen years old when he sat on the throne but he was already well versed in the skill of arms and would practise martial exercises like sword play, tent- pegging, archery, hunting, musketry etc Physical strength and athletic constitution found as much favour with the war like pontiff such as the highest piety or the deepest learning.7
The peaceful martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev has got great educational implications as it gave a new lease of life to the young community. with his martyrdom a new value of education, preparation of brave and valiant soldiers who could defend their own lives and honour of their countrymen, became one of the aims of Sikh educational curriculum. There came to be a blend of bhagti and shakti, Miri and Piri. Now the Sikhs began to be trained as Saint soldiers. Guru Arjan Dev could survive by giving a penalty of two lakhs imposed on him and get a lease of life. But he preferred death over slavery and religious conversion. The Guru by his supreme sacrifice infused a new spirit of bravery and valour in (Guru) Hargobind and the Sikhs.
Hence forth training in arms and sports became a permanent feature of Sikh educational policy which was initiated by Guru Hargobind Sahib and made a permanent feature by Guru Gobind Singh.
1. G.W.Leitner – History of Indigenous Education Language Deptt. Punjab, Patiala 1971.
4. Niharranjan Rai, The Sikh Gurus and the Sikh Society , Punjabi University , Patiala 1970.
5. Teja Singh – Growth of responsibility in Sikhism (S.G.P.C.) Amritsar
6. I.B. Banerji, Evolution of the Khalsa, Vol. II, p. 8
7. G.C. Narang, Transformation of Sikhism, published by Gujral Art Press Delhi, 1956, p. 60
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