Guru Granth – Guru Panth -
Doctrine & Experience
Dr Nirmal Singh
Guru Granth Sahib and Guru Panth – Historical Recap
That is the way Sikhs address their holy scripture that you witness placed so reverentially in the Sikh Houses of Worship, the Gurdwaras. Sikh worship service is carried out in the presence of Guru Granth Sahib and so are all the rites of passage. Sikhs also seek hukam or vaak of the Guru by reading a randomly opened page of Guru Granth Sahib every day and before venturing on anything important. The contents of Guru Granth Sahib, referred to as gurbani, or simply as bani, are given the place of eternal, living Guru by all Sikhs.
The Granth contains writings of six of the Sikh Gurus plus several Hindu, Muslim and Shudra saints of the time period between 12th and 17th century from various parts of South Asia including Bengal, Uttar Pardesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Sindh and Punjab. The compositions are written in poetic format and set to music organized not by themes or authors, but as per musical measures. The contents are songs in praise of God written in spoken language of the people in the region, with the pearls of divine wisdom scattered in lyrical metaphors from life. Considering that the Gurus lived and preached in times when the population consisted of Hindus, Muslims and those who were treated as low castes, the metaphor used in the text often refers to these categories. The message undoubtedly is intended for all people.
The 5th Master, Guru Arjun, initially compiled the Granth and the Pothi or Adi Granth, as it was called, was installed in 1604 AD at the Harimandar, Amritsar. Guru Arjun even at that time is said to have given the pothi a position higher than his seat. Clearly pothi was seen as the repository of bani that was characterized by the Gurus as ‘Guru’ saying – bani guru hai guru hai bani, vich bani amrit sarai – that bani is the Guru and the Guru is [his] bani and it is bani that contains the essence of immortality or ambrosial nectar.
Guru Gobind Singh added the compositions of Guru Tegh Bahadur to the pothi and it was this Granth that was bestowed the status of living, eternal Guru of the Sikhs before his passing in 1708. The advice is expressed in the litany agya bhaee akal kee tabhai chalaeo panth sabh sikhan ko hukam hai guru manyo granth — jo prabh ko mil bhau chahai khoj shabad main lai – it was on the express Divine instruction that this Panth was launched. Heed all Sikhs that you accept Granth as your Guru — and if you ardently seek the Divine, go search it in the shabd [bani]. The sorrowing Sikhs asked the Guru about who should they turn to for temporal guidance. His response was that the Guru has been always present in the sangat and you should seek counsel from within your collective community in which the Guru will always pervade. This collective later came to be known as Guru Panth. This parting advisory by the tenth Master is at the core of this twin doctrine. Still evolving, it has since been accepted as the guiding principle for the corporate Sikh religious and secular affairs.
Guru Granth Sahib – Guiding Precepts
The teachings emphasize one supreme God. Guru Arjun says that the Guru’s teachings free mind of the illusion and bring realization that Allah or Parbrahm are one and the same1 and that loving devotion of God and living a virtuous life is the most exalted expression of religiosity.2 Ravidas asserts that God cannot be claimed to be the exclusive Sire of any person or sect; He belongs to all those who love Him.3 Guru Nanak says that if one were to be able to really grasp the truth, one would recognize that with one Creator, unchanged over the ages, mankind has only one shared persuasion.4 Bhagat Kabir intones not to say that Ved and Kateb are untrue, for false are those who do not ponder over [and grasp the truths enshrined in] them.5
Men are reminded that God has created diversity in nature with a purpose. Even though man is the highest form of creation, God created and gave specific roles to all the diverse beings. Man has been given the ability to use the resources in creation for his purposes, but must remember that God loves what He has created.
Incarnation as a human being is considered a unique opportunity for the soul to unite with the divine. The highest goal is – jiwan mukta – liberated while alive. It is a state of totally subordinating individual willfulness – haumain, to the divine will, love for and service of others, earning through honest endeavor and sharing God given bounty, and staying in constant communion with the divine even as engaged in the mundane.
Equality before God of all humans is another important belief – any one with devotion to naam, be he Khatri, Brahmin, Vaish or Shudra can swim across the ocean separating the mortal from the divine.6 Likewise, men and women living their lives as householders can attain emancipation in the midst of children and spouses.7 Extending the concept further, Nanak says that we are not high, middle or low class or caste; we all are linked to God and His own people.8
The belief in equality is supported by a living ethic that aims at making the individual a productive, sharing and constructively involved social being. He is engaged with sangat (community of devotees) that provides anchor for his altruistic and spiritual pursuits. To this community all are welcome; none is excluded; and if liberation comes to any of them, all associated with the one will also get liberated9 – ultimate in acceptance of shared and collective human destiny.
The concern of the Gurus was for the well being of one and all. Guru Amar Das in his anguish pleads with God to shower His mercy and save this burning world through whichever door [path] it can be rescued.10 Guru Ram Das prays for God’s merciful consideration of his supplication for God’s blessings being showered on all beings in the world.11 The daily Sikh prayers at homes and in gurdwaras always end seeking that the well being of one and all be God’s merciful will.12
The state of society of their time deeply touched the Gurus. It is not a pretty picture. The truth is rare; spurious values, conflict, ignorance and disharmony prevail.13 People are apathetic and, blinded by their ignorance, are like effigies filled with straw.14 The response of citizenry seems to be guided by the instinct to survive through conformity.15
The functionaries of the state are corrupt and will do anything for graft.16 The rulers have turned butchers and righteousness has taken to wings.17 Those traditionally assigned the protective role have abjured their responsibility.18
The religious leadership does not inspire trust and the men of learning, engaged in petty squabbles, are actually only interested in worldly possessions.19 Those who wear the sacred thread, to curry favor, ply the knife over their own people20 and both qazis and brahmins speak untruths and commit grievous hurts.21
To be able to live true to this universal, inclusive, whole life theology in a real world, Gurbani suggests some societal codes and some markers for these codes to be able to take root. Guru Arjun says that the beneficient Lord has now ordained that the guiding governing principle must be humility and modesty. Termed halemi raj in this setting the leader, whose credentials are openly evaluated, functions as a sevak to facilitate a group of exemplars that catalyze societal transformation to harmony and righteousness.22 Sheik Farid suggests shunning revenge and winning over the violator through humility.23 Guru Tegh Bahadur commends neither to be afraid nor to cause fear to any body.24 The Gurus clearly do not give any quarter to disruptive or violent behavior, but Guru Nanak cautions that this path of love is not easy and if you choose to play it, be prepared to endure pain and make sacrifices.25 Sikhs are also persuaded not to shy away from righteous action – and be determined to right the wrongs, fight to win.26 Giving up life for a worthy cause is approved.27 Guru Gobind Singh also says that if all other devices fail, recourse to use of force, as a last resort, is fair and just.28
Precepts & Institution Building: an in Tandem Process
Guru Nanak established the town of Kartarpur where the sangat, community of believers lived, worked and prayed together in dharamsal. The latter also provided shelter and food to the wayfarers. Successive Gurus encouraged their followers to come together and form sangats and dharamsals in their own settings.
Guru Angad institutionalized the practice of langar. Balwand and Satta have mentioned his wife, Khivi, who managed it, in a composition in the Granth. The Guru also introduced the script known as Gurmukhi in which compositions of the Gurus were written.
Guru Amar Das added the practice of pangat – sitting in rows, to langar. Partaking food together in rows broke the barriers across castes that had been in practice for centuries. He also formalized the system of manjis – similar to diocese – that had been introduced by Guru Nanak and created 22 manjis and under them 52 piris, led by devotees, some of whom were women. The Guru asked the Sikhs to assemble at Goindwal every Diwali and Baisakhi for a collective meet. The Guru also is said to have recited his composition Anand to slomnize the wedding of his daughter to Ram Das.
Over time, the triad sangat, langar and pangat became an instrument for ‘fostering the spirit of equality, brotherhood and fraternization and in developing unrestricted commensalisms among its members.’29 The collective of Sikh following also came to be known as panth – literally, path. The word has been associated with sangat in Guru Granth Sahib.30
Guru Ram Das enjoined daswandh to be 10% of a Sikh’s income that was to be given to the Guru, who then used the collections for supporting the activities under his ministry. He also unambiguously sanctified material possessions as pure and blessed if the means used to achieve them were fair; the owner virtuous and use was for altruistic purposes. He also added a corpus of bani suitable as wedding liturgy.
Guru Arjun started the system of masands who could initiate neophytes into the faith and were also responsible for all administrative functions in their region including collection of daswandh and remitting it to the Guru. The structure of Manjis, Piris and Daswandh system administered by masands brought order into Sikh communal life. They had an organization to guide and support them in their locales and also to generate resources for the centralized activities as directed by the Gurus. The Guru also assembled the pothi, gave it a place of highest reverence and started the practice of kirtan chokis at Harmandar, thus providing an anchor and a model for Sikh worship as well as religious life.
Guru Hargobind constructed Akal Takht, the Temporal Seat of the Divine, opposite the Harmandar and held court there where he heard and resolved the temporal problems that the devotees brought to him. Sikhs remember him as miri te piri da malik, master of the temporal and spiritual domains. In his time, the bards sang the songs of valor in bir ras as the new symbols of aigrette, canopy, sword and chase nurtured their confidence to carve out their own destiny in spite of the power of forces that had tried to hurt the Gurus and caused the martyrdom of Guru Arjun.
The Guru also sent out letter to the far-flung sangats, informing them about the setting up of Akal Takht and asking them to include horses and weapons among the offerings they sent. This sending of written instructions came to be known as hukamnamas and we will revert to it later.
In Aurangzeb’s time, pressure on Hindus became intense. Iftikhar Khan, the Governor of Kashmir had started forcible conversions of Hindus to Islam that made Kashmiri Pandits led by Pandit Kirpa Ram to seek intercession by Guru Tegh Bahadur who after some deliberation asked them to inform Aurangzeb that if he could make the Guru to embrace Islam they would follow suit. Soon after, the Guru accompanied by three devout followers was arrested, brought to Delhi and was publicly beheaded. The second Guru martyrdom, this time for religious freedom of Hindus, set another marker for Sikh righteousness.
Creation of the order of Khalsa by Guru Gobind Singh with outward symbols challenged the Sikhs to carve out their place in society on their own in full glare of visibility. They were now resolute to offer armed resistance if needed.
The Guru abolished the institution of masands; some of who had started behaving in the manner of local gurus, nominating their own successors while some had turned corrupt – in a way reinforcing direct Sikh-Guru relationship.
The act by the Guru of asking the panj pyaras to administer amrit to him after they had been so initiated by the Guru foreshadowed the direction of post-Guru Sikh leadership. It set the chosen five on a pedestal equal to the Guru and Sikhs could see this as symbolic approval by the Guru of the role of panj pyaras. The Guru thus seemed to be familiarizing Sikhs with the twin doctrine prior to his passing.
Transition from Guru to Post-Guru Period
Guru Gobind Singh a little before his passing picked on a new convert, Lachman Das31 a bairagi renamed Banda Singh and charged him to punish those who had persecuted Sikhs and murdered his young sons. The Guru bestowed upon him a drum, a banner and five arrows as emblems of authority, and asked five Sikhs to accompany him on his mission. The Guru also provided him a hukamnamah instructing Sikhs to join him.32 Banda was an accredited representative of the Guru with a specific assigned task and he was sent with five Sikhs in the manner of council of panj pyaras.33
It so transpired that Banda had not long left when the Guru expired. Banda nonetheless continued with his assigned task but absent the Guru, he did not have access to his live counsel during the course of his mission. Thus Banda perchance became the transitional link from leadership by the Gurus to post-Guru period Sikh leadership.
Banda received enthusiastic support from Sikhs who were highly inspired by the Khalsa doctrine and motivated to avenge the tyrannous acts committed against the Gurus. In a short period of less than two years, Banda was the virtual master of territories between the rivers Yamuna and Sutlej. He had new coins struck in the name of Guru Nanak – Guru Gobind Singh, abolished zamindari and declared cultivators as owners of land.34
Soon the Mughal king came down with full force to quell Sikh uprising. Differences however arose and he could not hold on to the loyalty of his councilors.35 Banda and his followers were captured on 7 December 1715. Banda confined in an iron cage alongwith 740 prisoners and seven hundred cartloads of the heads of the Sikhs with another 2,000 stuck upon pikes were taken to Delhi. Banda was tortured – his eyes pulled out, hands and feet chopped off, and finally cut up limb by limb.
The stunning success and equally precipitous fall of Banda forced Sikhs to hibernate and organize on their own without the help and guidance of the Guru. They were aware of the Guru’s parting edict about the twin leadership by Guru Panth and Guru Granth, though the blueprint to follow emerged slowly.36
Guru Granth Sahib as Guru Incarnate
The Sikhs accepted Guru Granth Sahib as the Guru incarnate immediately on the passing of the tenth Guru.37 Guru Granth Sahib was considered the repository of shabad, the source of enlightenment and guide in spiritual pursuit. Even though during the 18th century Sikhs used different versions of Adi Granth as the Guru Granth Sahib, the Sikhs strongly held on to the belief that Guru Granth Sahib was their living Guru and rejected any claim by any individual who even remotely tried to claim the mantle.38
Standardization of the Damdami version that Guru Gobind Singh had sanctified as Guru Granth Sahib happened during the rule of Ranjit Singh. Acceptance by the Singh Sabha of this version and printing of the Guru Granth Sahib starting 1864 helped the process further.39
Certain controversies like the different schools of interpretation,40 dispute over pad chhed – the breakup of continuous writing into discrete word groups, the relative status of compositions by the Gurus and others, inclusion of rag mala at the end of the Granth are of later origin and even though were subjects of heated debates and strong divisions, these have not eroded Sikh acceptance of the Guru Granth Sahib as their Guru in its standardized format.41
A question that must be addressed at this stage is as to how did Sikhs relate to Guru Granth Sahib as a living Guru. Tradition here is very helpful. The Gurus placed the Granth at a place higher than their seat, listened to bani being recited and sung in the sangat and explicated it in their discourses. The Sikhs therefore had learnt to accept the Granth as encapsulating Guru’s thought and thus act as a bridge between them and God and to guide them in their spiritual quest.
The other important relation was that of the personal God. In this area too the tradition of seeking the divine response to a supplication or blessing for a project from the Granth came about during the very first installation of the Pothi when the verse revealed through a random opening of the book was taken as the divine response or advisory. The practice has continued since as an important Sikh ritual.
One other thing was that the house of the Guru was a place to congregate, be a part of the sangat and pangat, listen to kirtan and explication of Guru’s thought, perform seva, bring their daswand for the projects undertaken by the Guru and learn what maanyo meant to a Sikh. This was also the place where they could experience the presence - having a darsan - of the Guru, share their innermost thoughts with him and seek his advice. The Gurdwara tradition has come to incorporate most of these functions by building them into the ritual practices surrounding the Sikh worship with Guru Granth Sahib as a living, eternal Guru.
We said earlier that before passing away, the tenth Guru asked Sikhs to maanyo the Granth as their Guru. Sikhs of that time mostly had come to the Guru and had become Sikhs of the Guru of their own volition. They were a witness to the potential of spiritual transformation that the Guru helped Sikhs to achieve and well recognized that the process entailed listening to the Guru, accepting his teachings and internalizing them.42 Guru Nanak has dwelt at length on manai – translated as accepting or obeying, in Japji. The crux of his thought is that accepting or obeying is linked to dharam or the tenets of religious life. The sense of maanyo, therefore, is not just ritualistic acceptance of the Granth as Guru but living by its tenets.43 Tradition has built-in explication of tenets and persuasion of the devotees to live by the tenets as part of the worship service in various ways – discourses and ardas come to mind.
Darsan of Guru has been lauded in various metaphors in the Guru Granth Sahib. The heart of a Sikh longs for darsan of the Guru in the manner of the chatrik bird thirsting for a raindrop.44 The devotee seeks darsan of the Guru, the giver of peace and pleads for the Guru to take him in his arms.45 It is only through great good fortune that one obtains darsan of the Guru who leads one to the love of God.46
The tradition of seeking darsan of the Guru has come down from the time of Gurus. Sikhs would travel long distances to be able to do this. The gatherings at Baisakhi and Diwali created an opportunity for the devotee to meet the Guru and get his darsan in a collective, communal setting. In Sikh worship now, the acts of respectful obeisance to Guru Granth Sahib, taking a glimpse of the sangat as an embodiment of the Guru’s person, and taking the hukam47 together constitute darsan of the Guru. Merely taking a look at or making others take a look at the exposed page of Guru Granth Sahib is not considered darsan.48
A related tradition is parkash – radiance with coming of the Guru that brings vivid joyous reverence to the devotee – witnessed every morning on TV screens as it plays out at the Golden Temple. Verily Sikhs believe that radiant light of the Guru blesses one with the true merchandise, wealth and capital49 and as Kabir said the Guru’s arrow has pierced the hard core of this dark age of Kalyug and enlightenment has dawned.
The Sikh had no hesitation in sharing with the Guru his problems, mental travails, vexing questions or any pain and anguish that did not leave him in peace. Nanak says O my mother, I will tell Guru of my pain when I meet him.51 Satta and Balwand, who were minstrels in the Guru’s house and one of whose compositions is included in the Guru Granth Sahib say that the Guru is aware of the inner state of one’s being and their thoughts, because he is knower of the knowers.52 Guru Arjun Dev says that pleasure, pain and all else that my mind keeps wrestling with I place before you.53 There can be no secrets between the Guru and Sikh – not because the Sikh may not try but because the Guru is all-knowing. In a rhetoric vein, the Guru asks the question that [since] you fully know the state of my mind, who else should I tell it to [and why]?54 His advice to the Sikh is that if you are feeling low, if your sense of sadness is deep, pull yourself together and make your supplication to the Guru for the prayer of a devotee never goes unheard.55
This is what the Sikhs do – they offer their supplication to the Guru; they prostrate before the Guru; they sit solemnly in the Guru’s presence and share their anxieties, their fears, their tribulations and their sense of joy, happiness and gratitude with the Guru. Nanak says I ask my Guru for his advice and follow the advice that I receive.56 The Guru answers in his own way or through the hukam if the Sikh seeks it that way and if the Sikh follows it, he is helped to be able to take it all in the stride.
(To be Continued....)
Notes and References
1 kaho nanak gur khoey bharam, eko alloh parbrahm – [Ramkali M V, p 897]
2 sagal dharma main sresht dharma, har ka nam jap nirmal karam – [Gauri Sukhmani M V]
3 aapan baapai naahin kisi ko bhavan ko har raja – [Sorath Ravidas p 658]
4 eko dharma dir-rhai sach koey, gurmat poora jug jug soey – [Basant M I, p 1188]
5 bayd katayb kahau mat jhoothay jhoothaa jo na bichaarai - [Parbhati Kabir p.1350]
6 khatree baraahman sood vais sabh aykai naam taraanath. gur naanak updays kahat hai jo sunai so paar paraanath -[Maru M V, p 1001]
7 satgur kee aisee vadi-aa-ee. putar kaltar vichay gat paa-ee - [Dhanasri M I, p 661]
8 aey ji neh ham uttam, neech neh madham, har sarnagat har ke log – [Gujri M I, p 504]
9 aap tare sagle kul taarey – [Dhanasri M I, p 662]
10 jagat jalanda rakh kai apni kirpa dhar, jit dwarai ubhrai tithai lai ubhar – [Bilawal M III, p.853]
11 kirpa kar ke sunno prabh sabh jag mehn varsai meh – [Sorath M IV, p.652]
12 tere bhanai sarbat ka bhala - Ardas
13 sach kaal koor vartia kal kaalakh betaal - (M I p.468)
14 andhi rayat gian vihooni bhaah bhare murdaar -(M I p.469)
15 neel vastra pehr hoveh parwaan (M I p.472)
16 qazi hoe rishvati vaddi laike haq gavai (Bhai Gurdas, Varan1/30)
17 kal kate raaje kasaai dharam pankh kar udhriya - (M I p.145)
18 khatriyan te dharam chhodiya (M I p.663)
19 moorakh pandit hikmat hujat sanjai kareh pyar -(M I p.469)
20 chhuri vagain tin gal taag -(M I p.471)
21 qadi kurh bol mal khaaye, brahman nhave jia ghave -(M I p.662)
22 Sri Rag M V, p 73. For a detailed discussion of the subject see the author’s book ‘Searches in Sikhism’, Hemkunt Press, 2008.
23 Farida je tu maaran mukiyan tina naa maare ghum, aapane ghar jaaiye paer tina dey chum-(Slok Farid p.1384)
24 bhai kaahu ko det neh, neh bhai maanat aan (Slok 16)
25 jo to prem khelan kaa chaao sir dhar tali gali moree aao (Slok Varan te Vadhik, M I, p.1412)
26 de shiva bar mohey shubh karman te kabhoon neh taroon... nishchai he apni jeet karoon (Dasam Granth)
27 maran neh mandaa lokaa aakhiyeje koi mar jaaney (M I p.579)
28 chu kaar az hamah heelate darguzasht halaal, ast burdan b-shamsheer dast -[Zafar Nama]
29 Sunita Puri, Advent of Sikhism, Delhi, 1993, p 129
30 ik uttam panth suniyo gur sangat jeh milant sabh traas mitaai – Swaiyyai Bhaat Keerat
31 Encyclopaedia of Sikhism entry says ‘According to Hakim Rai, Ahwali Lachhman Das urf Banda Sahib, his father Ram Dev, a ploughman, came of the Sodhi subcaste.’
32 Khushwant Singh says in his History Vol. I that Guru Gobind Singh lost any hope for Bahadur Shah to take action against Wazir Khan. He therefore ‘charged [Banda] with the duty of punishing the men who had persecuted Sikhs and murdered his sons – issued orders to the Sikhs —’. [p 101-2] He also speculates that ‘Banda was only one of a number of Sikhs sent — to foment rebellion in the Punjab - Footnote p 102]. He quotes Gyani Gyan Singh’s Panth Parkash to say Banda claimed his mission to wreak vengeance on the Turk – kill and ruin Wazira’s household – plunder and rob Sirhind — destroy hill chiefs. [Footnote p 103].
33 See Encyclopaedia of Sikhism for their names – some other accounts give different names of the Hazuri Singhs. See also Sohan Singh, Banda Singh Bahadur, Patiala, 2000, p 14 for advisory to consult five Sikhs before deciding on any course of action.
34 ‘Banda promised land to the landless and loot to everyone’ [ibid, p 105]
35 The main column of about 4,000 men under Banda was subjected to a terrible siege at the village of Gurdas-Nangal, about six kilometers from Gurdaspur. The garrison resisted the siege of 100,000 Mughal troops under gruesome conditions for eight months. Towards the end, an unfortunate dispute arose between Banda and Binod Singh who along with Baj Singh and three others made up the war council that Banda was supposed to consult in any difficult situation. Binod Singh advised the evacuation of the fortress, but for some reasons of his own, Banda wished to fight it out there. Binod Singh was senior in age, and when this difference of views flared up into an open quarrel, Banda agreed to let Binod Singh take his men out of the Fortress. Binod Singh and his supporters then charged out of the fortress and escaped. [Wikipaedia]
36 J S Grewal suggests that the doctrines of Guru Granth and Guru Panth crystallized in the 18th century [p 326] but during the rule of Ranjit Singh Guru Panth was relegated and Guru Granth became more important than ever before [p 332] – Lectures on History, Society and Culture of the Punjab, Patiala, 2007.
37 There are several historical references including an entry in Bhat Vahi Talauda Pargana, Jind quoted by historians in this regard. For example see Harbans Singh The Sikh Heritage, Manohar, 1999, p 96-7.
38 Mata Sundari advised Sikhs that only ten Gurus were in human form and belief in Banda or Ajita is a mortal sin. Sikhs must believe in shabad. See Harbans Singh, ibid, p. 98-9.
39 For a detailed account read Pashaura Singh, The Guru Granth Sahib, Oxford, 2001, Chapter 7.
40 There are strong differences of opinion on interpretation especially on subjects like reincarnation, naam simran, and multiplicity of Hindu mythical references to delink Sikh thought from interpretations rooted in Hindu Vedic tradition. The supporting body of literature the controversaries spawned is too numerous to list but has had the impact of much wider recognition of independence, not syncretism, of Sikh thought.
41 One of the major and consistent proponents was Teja Singh Bhasaur and his Panch Khalsa Diwan. After a protracted struggle, the Akal Takht excommunicated Teja Singh and his Diwan in 1928. For a detailed treatment see Barrier, Authority, Politics and Contemporary Sikhism in Sikhism & History, Oxford, 2006
42 suniye maniye munn rakhiye bhao – Japji, Pauri 5
43 Read Japji Pauris 12-15 – the verse quoted above is mania dharma saiti sanbhand [Pauri 14]
44 maeraa man lochai gur dharasan thaaee bilap karai chatrik ki niaaee – Majh M V, p 96
45 dhaehu dharas sukhadhaathiaa mai gal vich laihu milaae jeeo – Sri Rag M V, p 74
46 vaddabhaagee gur dharasan paaeiaa dhhan dhhann guroo liv laavai – Gauri M IV, p 172
47 Reading or reading out to others, including the congregation, of a Shabad or a unit of one or more slokas and a pauri from the Guru Granth Sahib after, or even without performing, Ardas is called Hukam laina [Taking the order or command], Vak laina [taking the word], Awaz laina [taking the voice].
48 Article VII, SRM
49 sach vakhar dhhan raas lai paaeeai gur paragaas – Sri Rag M I, p 22
50 gur kai baan bajar kal shhaedhee pragattiaa padh paragaasaa – Gauri Kabir, p 332
51 gur maelae birathhaa keho maae – Basant M I, p 1188
52 jaanai birathhaa jeea kee jaanee hoo jaan – Ramkali Var Satta Balwand, p 968
53 sookh dhookh eis man kee birathhaa thum hee aagai saaranaa – Ramkali M V, p 915
54 jaanehi birathhaa sabhaa man kee hor kis pehi aakh sunaaeeai – Asa M V, p 382
55 jeea kee birathhaa hoe s gur pehi aradhaas kar – Gujri M V, p 519
56 ho gur pooshho aapanae gur pushh kaar kamaao – Sri Rag M I, p 58
ęCopyright Institute of Sikh Studies, 2009, All