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Akal Takht
– A Premier Sikh Institution –

Dr Surinder Singh

Guru Arjan was summoned to Lahore by emperor Jahangir in April 1606, who wanted to convert the Guru to Islam or otherwise close down his organization. Jadu Nath Sarkar has labeled Guru Arjan Dev as a revenue defaulter having not paid rupees two lakh fine imposed on him. Jadu Nath’s efforts to convert a religious persecution as a revenue default has been severely criticized by later historians. His ardent student Hari Ram Gupta has stated “Jadu Nath Sarkar is absolutely wrong in calling Guru Arjan Dev a revenue defaulter.”3 The barbarity and religious intolerance of Jahangir is evident from his autobiographical account in Tauzak-i-Jahangiri.

“In Gobindwal, which is on the river Beas, there was a Hindu named Arjun, in the garments of sainthood and sanctity, so much so that he had captured many of the simple-hearted of the Hindus and even of the ignorant and foolish followers of Islam, by his ways of manner, and they had loudly sounded the drum of his holiness. They called him Guru, and from all sides stupid people crowded to worship and manifest completely faith in him. For three or four generations (of spiritual successors) they had kept this shop warm. Many times it occurred to me to put a stop to this vain affair or to bring him into the assembly of the people of Islam.”4

Shortly before his demise under great physical torture, Guru Arjun Dev sent a message to the Sikhs regarding his son Hargobind, “Let him sit fully armed on his throne and maintain an army to the best of his abilities.”5

At the ceremony of succession, Guru Hargobind wore two swords, one representing ‘Miri’ his temporal kingdom and the other representing his spiritual kingdom. As the story goes, when Baba Budha applied ‘Tilak’ on Guru’s forehead, he put the sword wrongly on the right side. As he tried to put the sword on the right side, he was stopped by the Guru, who desired a second sword to be put on the other side. He called the two swords representing Miri and Piri. The simple incident by an eleven year old, led to the formation of distinct and a new political institution in which the affairs of the religion were made separate from the affairs of the state while being part of the same entity, came into existence and practice in the Indian sub continent for the first time.

Twenty centuries earlier, the famous Greek philosopher Plato had propounded on some what similar lines that

“until philosophers are kings or kings and princes of this world have the spirit and power of philosophy, cities will never have rest from their evils.”6

The objectives of an ideal ruler in an ideal society were thus established as a philosopher king in a combination of a competent king with philosophic justice, the corner stone of the state.

In the early days of Hindu civilization, when religious Maths/organizations became very large and prosperous, these bodies recruited certain ascetics for the protection of the property and the organization. These religious ascetics with proper training became much superior than ordinary soldiers. These Maths with sizable armies even lent them to neighboring rulers in their mutual fights. Naked ascetics were called nagas were considered far superior to the other warriors. Emperor Akbar had also kept some Nagas battalions who were paid almost double the salary than that of the normal Indian soldiers.

Ramanandi order was founded by religious teacher Ramanand sometimes between 1300-1500 A.D7. Some of these orders were celibate and other kept families and carried out large scale business in camels and horses besides money lending and owning property8. They did not observe any caste distinctions as are there in the Hindu caste system. His important disciples were Kabir (Julaha), Ravidas (Cobler), Sena (Barbar) and Padmavati etc9. These sadhus believe that they belong to a fifth Varna (Shukla Varna). This category of the pure is considered above the four casts in which the Hindu society is divided. The ascetic Sadhus under a particular religious leader were then and even now are called his Khalsa. Similarly there were Chatursampadaya Khalsa, Dakore Khalsa, Indore Khalsa or Ratlam Khalsa etc etc10. According to Ramanandi history, Krishna Das Payahari an important Ramanandi saint defeated the Kanphata yogi Taranath and occupied his temple fortess at Galta at the beginning of the 16th century.11

The meaning attributed to the Khalsa created by Guru Gobind Singh is associated with the word (Khalis) pure. The lands directly under the Mughal ruler were also called Khalsa lands. I am, however, of the opinion that the Khalsa created by Guru Gobind Singh was in accordance with the above mentioned lines, except the Khalsa created by the Hindu organization were small chosen sections, whereas the Khalsa created by Guru Gobind Singh was for the whole Sikh nation, ofcourse with different rules and regulations based on Sikh ethos. The Khalsa of Guru Gobind Singh were Sant Sipahis and the Khalsa of the Hindu organizations were only sipahis(common soldiers).

Guru Hargobind inherited 52 bodyguards, 700 horses, 300 horsemen and 60 gunners12. During 1606, in front of Hari Mandir Guru Hargobind raised a 12 feet high platform named Akal Takht, i.e., God’s throne, on the lines of the Mughal throne.13 It was constructed by Bhai Buddha and Bhai Gurdas with all reverence.14 The repeated statements of historians that Guru Hargobind brought about a complete transformation from a passive religious sect to a militant religious sect is not correct. The same has come into existence, when its need arose due to the acute hostile attitude of Jahangir the ruling emperor towards the Sikh community and its Gurus. Guru Hargobind also introduced the custom of beating the drum as an attribute of his sovereignty, which was the prevalent practice of the rulers in the Mughal era. He treated Hari Mandir as the seat of his spiritual sovereignty and the Akal Takht as a seat of his temporal sovereignty. As the Sikh community developed, it adopted quite a few Mughal traditions and practices, but the essence thereof has been according to the Sikh faith and ethos and radically different from the Mughal characteristics.

Early morning Guru Hargobind used to go to the Hari Mandir, hear ‘Jap Ji’ and ‘Asa Di War’ and thereafter preached to his Sikhs. In the afternoon he would sit on the Akal Takht, where he administered justice like a King in court, accepted presents, awarded honours and gave punishments. Stories of undaunted bravery were narrated and ballads of unrivalled courage were sung. The most famous bard was Abdullah15. In his first Hukmnama, Guru Hargobind called upon his followers to bring offerings of arms and horses. Thus the Guru created a government of his own vying that of Mughals. Various historians have treated Sikh organization a kind of separate state within the Mughal state, the position of which was securely established by the fiscal policy of Guru Amar Das and Guru Arjan Dev and his own system of a regular army16.

Around 1609, Guru Hargobind was summoned to Delhi. Once accompanying Jahangir to Agra where his forth-right replies seemed to have annoyed Jahangir and for which Guru Hargobind was put in captivity in Gwalior fort. The period of Guru’s stay is not clear. His release is said to be due to Mian Mir, a sufi saint who was very friendly with the Sikh Gurus and also had great influence in the Mughal court17. Guru Hargobind fought six fairly fierce battles (1633 to 1638) with the Mughal officials. Finding no end thereto in sight and these battles being a great strain on his resources of both men and material, he moved to a place near present Bilaspur, named it Kiratpur and spent rest of his life there till his demise in 164918. Nihar Ranjan Ray has very correctly summed up that Guru Nanak laid down the main planks of platform on which the edifice of Sikh society was to be built. The later Gurus walked on these planks and few of them – Guru Arjan, Guru Hargobind and Guru Gobind Singh – strengthened them by buttressing and adding new dimensions to them19.

Akal Takhat has gone through various phases of its role in Sikh politics. It has been a virtual barometer of Sikh ethos and changing fortunes in their struggle for freedom.

a) The first phase (1606 – 1635) has been the creation of a separate institution of miri by Guru Hargobind. He sat in princely attire on a 12 ft high platform, raised on Mughal pattern, and administered justice as a king. Professional bards, Abdulla, Babak and Natha, sang popular ballads of unrivalled heroism and Rajput chivalry. Goswami Ramdas, the Guru of Shivaji, met Guru Hargobind in Kashmir, asked him on his being a successor of Guru Nanak who had renounced the world and he was living like a prince with a army of his followers calling him Sacha Padshah. “What kind of Sadhu are you?” Guru Hargobind summed up his reply in “Saintliness is within and Sovereignty is without”, which satisfied and pleased the Hindu Guru20. Guru Hargobind fought successfully a few battles with Mughal officials but was in no position to fight a war with imperial forces. He shifted his head quarters to Kiratpur in the relative safety of Shivalik hills.

b) The Second phase (1635 onwards for almost a century) the Akal Takhat popularly called Akalbunga remained in a dormant state under occupation of Prithia and his family. After Guru Hargobind leaving Amritsar his successor Gurus’ did not come back to Amritsar and lived in Shivalik hills. When Guru Tegh Bahadur visited Amritsar accompanied by his family on 22 November 1664, doors of Harimandir were closed on him and he was refused admission. The role of Akal Takhat in the administration of Miri aspect was operated from where the Gurus’ had established their head quarters. In modern terminology, it could be called as Akal Takhat functioning in exile.

c) The third phase has been Guru Gobind Singh period (1675 – 1708). Guru Gobind Singh between the age of 9 years to 39 years i.e. in 30 years, he had to fight twenty battles, nine before the creation of the Khalsa and eleven after the creation of the Khalsa in 1699. He fortified the Anandgarh fort and raised four smaller forts viz. namely Lohgarh, Holgarh, Fatehgarh and Taragarh around the town within a radius a 1 km all around21. In 1699, he created the Khalsa and baptised five disciples with Khanda Puhal and there after asked them similarly to baptise him22. Shortly before his death he abolished the personal guruship and put the spiritual sovereignty in the Granth, thereafter called the Guru Granth Sahib. He placed his temporal Sovereignty in the Khalsa thereafter called the Khalsa Panth23. So great was the attachment of the Sikhs with their Guru that they took on them the responsibility to rule in the name of the Guru. They made their daily salutation and a war cry as “Waheguru ji ka Khalsa Waheguru ji ki fateh” that the Khalsa belong to the Guru and so does the victory belongs to the Guru. Temporal functions were performed by Guru Gobind Singh in the spirit of Miri and Piri from Anandpur Sahib where he had established himself. The views of Guru Gobind Singh on temporal sovereignty are given in his writing Krishan Avtar.

1) Deg, Tegh Jag mein dohon chalen,
Rakh lo moi aap, awar na dalen

meaning both my economic power and strength of arms should prevail in the world. Under your protection, none be able to trample me.24

2) Koi kisi ko Raj na de hae
Jo lai hai nij bal sit lai hae

meaning, no body gives self rule as a gift to another,
it is to be seized through their own strength.25

3) Raj bina neh Dharam chale hain
Dharam bina sab dale male hain

meaning, that without political power Dharam does not prosper and without Dharam the society remains admixture of hoch poch.26

Guru Gobind Singh transformed the Sikh community, from a body of men and women, at one stroke, militant in spirit and oriented towards meeting any challenge to their faith and their society. A challenge that came not only from the Mughal, but also from Hindu hill rajas, perhaps more from the later27. The creation of the Khalsa in 1699 was the most dynamic master stroke in converting ordinary Sikhs from lower strata of society into Sant Sipahis where the saint aspect guided them to be pious in nature and at the same time valiant soldiers in the field. It seems to be an admixture in Miri and Piri for every soldier to a limited extent. The integration of the temporal and spiritual aspects has been the most significant contribution of the Sikh Gurus’ to the totality of the Sikh way of life.

d) The period of Banda Bahadur (1708 – 1715). Guru Gobind Singh while at Nanded realized the hostility of the entire Mughal court towards him and the helplessness of the emperor to take any action against Wazir Khan, the Faujdar of Sirhind28. He also realised that it may not be possible for him to leave for Punjab. Banda Bahadur, a Bairagi, who had recently become his ardent disciple was sent to Punjab with his directions and assisted by five senior Sikhs as advisers and about two dozen soldiers to reorganize the depressed Sikh community and strive to wrest back the lost territories29. Banda Bahadur was successful in defeating Wazir Khan and occupying the entire Faujdari of Sirhind and surrounding territories where he established his own thanas and set up the first Sikh State30. The Sikhs made a seal for the state and also issued silver rupee coins as a symbol of their sovereignty. The legend on the seal was: “Deg Teg Fateh O Nusrat Baidrang, yaft uz Nanak Guru Gobind Singh” meaning that Deg the economic resources, Teg the strength of sword arm with unrestrained help, received from Guru Nanak to Guru Gobind Singh31. The coin bore the legend

Obverse Sikka Zad Bar Har Do Alam Teg-i-Nanak Wahib ast,
Fateh Gobind Singh Shah-i-Shahan Fazl Sacha Sahib Ast.
Reverse Zarb Ba Aman-ul-Dahar Masawarat Shahr-i-Zinat,
Al Takht Khalsa Mubarak Bakht
Meaning a coin has been struck in both the worlds herein and hereafter under the guarantee of Guru Nanak’s double-edged sword, the victory of Guru Gobind Singh King of Kings has been achieved with the grace of Sacha Sahib. Minted at a place of perfect peace, picture of a beautiful city where the illustrious throne of the Khalsa is located.

The rapid occupation of Sarhind and surrounding territories forced Emperor Bahadur Shah to patch up a hasty truce with Rajputs and come to Panjab. The Mughal forces under Bahadur Shah were about a lakh and a half and another about one lakh forces under the governors of Jammu, Panjab and Sarhind and various levies of the Muslim zamindars of the entire area, totaling about three lakh strong army fully trained and equipped. Banda Bahadur kept them at bay from 1709 to 1715 when he had only about 30 to 40 thousand untrained and ill equipped volunteer forces. He adopted various war tactics, in Sadhora, Lohgarh axis and tactical withdrawal in Haripur reserve forest. When he was cornered in Gurdas Nangal the Mughal forces put such a heavy encirclement that to break through along his troops was thus not possible. Banda Bahadur ultimately surrendered to Mughal forces. He and over 700 men of his were taken to Delhi and all of them were beheaded33. Although, technically Banda Bahadur’s uprising failed, but it gave the Sikhs a taste of independence and sovereign status. Any amount of hurdles put in their way, the entire might of the Mughal state and the Durrani invaders could not deter them from fighting to win. Banda Bahadur had brought such a resolution in the minds of the oppressed people of Panjab that it generated a will power to lead them on to the ultimate success all over North western India.

e) Misl Period (1715 – 1765). The period from the fall of Banda Bahadur in 1715 till the permanent occupation of Lahore by Sikhs in 1765 is replete with extreme tortures on Sikhs men, women and children. All sorts of inhuman and tortuous methods were adopted by the Mughal rulers and Afghan invaders in a persistent manner with the intent to literally annihilate them by either conversion to Islam or by executions. But the spirit breathed in the Sikhs by Guru Gobind Singh gave them exemplary and death defying courage, tempered with compassion for the weak. This period from 1708 to 1765 is the golden period of the struggle and development of Sikh the society into a Sikh nation under extremely trying circumstances. Certain institution got developed in the midst of persistent enemy attacks. e.g., Sikhs under extreme pressure and persecution by Samad Khan, Zakariya Khan, Muin-ul-Mulk, etc. moved out from their villages and towns and sought refuge in Lakhi jungles and Malwa deserts34. Since their women and children were not spared, they took them to their hideouts. With passage of time, they were able to hold their own with defense oriented guerrilla tactics and successfully planned intrusions into the Mughal territories besides setting up small fortresses almost in all important villages in their defense. The situation has been summed up in a popular saying that the government ruled by the day and Khalsa ruled by the night35.

The Sikhs were firmly established in their areas after the close of first quarter of 18th century. They were regular visitors to Amritsar during Baisakhi and Diwali. They used to meet each other, discuss their common problems and even mutual animosities, which could be sorted out in a soothing atmosphere or by intervention of other sardars. They would then assemble at the Akal Takht, where after some religious ceremony they would choose the senior and the most respected sardar as the leader and pass certain resolutions, which were named as Gurmatas. Their assembly has been variously called as General Assembly, National Council etc. These Gurmatas have invariably been passed unanimously and without any vote of dissent. The combined will of the Khalsa was thus supreme in all affairs, religious and temporal. The Gurmata thus was the combined will of the Khalsa.36

A very cardinal feature of the assemblies at Akal Takht was that (i) All those who attended the assembly were equal to each other and had equal right to participate in the deliberations; (ii) All private animosities ceased among those assembled at the Akal Takht and willingly sacrificed their personal feelings at the altar of the general good. After the Gurmata was passed, (iii) every one, irespective of whether he had spoken for or against when it was debated, considered it his religious duty to abide by it. There is not a single case known where this was not done and certain sardars did not participate in the fight against the Mughals or Afghans37. European travellers John Malcom and George Forster have given detailed account of independence of expression and after the passing of the Gurmata, forgetting their private feuds and service rendered with extreme devotion to the common wealth38.

A few important Gurmatas are as under:-

a) the Gurmata of 1733 conferring the title of Nawab on Kapur Singh.

b) In 1745, to recognize 25 organized groups of Sikhs to resist persecution and carrying on raids against Mughal’s strongholds.

c) In 1747, Gurmata passed to erect the fort Ram Rauni in Amritsar.

d) In 1748 Gurmata, to establish the Dal Khalsa and choosing of Jassa Singh Ahluwalia as the leader of the Dal.

e) Gurmata 1753, recognition of the system of Rakhi that had been instituted by the Misls etc39.

A very important Gurmata was passed in 1765 on Baisakhi. The jubilation over their victory and festivities of Baisakhi went on about a month and thereafter the sardars sat down at Akal Takht to attend to the common problems faced by the community. The Gurmata unanimously passed declared their complete independence and assumption of sovereignty. They resolved to regain their old territories and acquire new ones wherever possible. They also decided to issue a coin in the name of Gurus as a mark of their sovereignty40. The Sikhs decided to occupy the Capital City of Lahore and the Bhangi chiefs Lehna Singh, Gulab Singh and Sobha Singh marched to Lahore and occupied the same without any serious resistance and parceled the town amongst themselves in May 176541. This period of over a three quarter century has been the period of greatness of Akal Takht.

f) After occupation of Lahore city, the Sikhs issued a coin dated 1765 A.D. 1822 Sambat. The legend for the obverse was taken from the Khalsa seal made in the time of Banda Bahadur.

Obverse Deg Teg Fateh O Nusrat Baidrang,
yaft uz Nanak Guru Gobind Singh42

Since there was no reverse on the Khalsa seal, they took the existing legend as on the reverse of the Mughal’s coins, i.e. Zarb Dar-ul-Salatnat Lahore Jalus Maiminat Manoos, meaning Capital City of Lahore Auspicious and Prosperous Reign. After about 10 years Sikhs were able to locate a rupee coin of Banda Bahadur from some where in Amritsar. They brought out a Sikh coin from Amritsar with legend:-

Obverse Sikka Zad Bar har Do Alam Shah Nanak Wahib ast,
Fateh Sahi Guru Gobind Singh Shah-i-Shahan Fazl Sacha Sahib Ast.
Reverse Zarb Sri Amritsar Jio Takht Akal Takht Jaloos Maiminat Manoos43

meaning that coined at Sri Amritsar Jioe, Reign of Illustrious Akal Takht Auspicious and Prosperous. The Sikhs found that the legend on the reverse of the coins of Banda Bahadur could not be used as such, as they had a proper city from where it was being minted, the city of Amritsar being the most sacred city for the Sikhs. In place of the Takht Khalsa, they gave the said honour and authority to Akal Takht, which was a revered place next to Hari Mandir Sahib.

g) The fifth phase (1800 to 1850) in the period of Ranjeet Singh upto 1839 and after that of his inglorious descendents

Ranjeet Singh was born in 1780 and when his father Maha Singh died he was twelve years old. Within three years he threw off the tutelage of his mother and others and by 1795 he became his own master. He grew up into a fine soldier from boyhood. But the corrupt influences of the oriental court led him to all the prevalent vices and debaucheries of his times. He had none of the qualities of the leadership like Kapur Singh and Jassa Singh Ahluwalia who had carried the Sikh nation through the most difficult period of turmoil and bloodshed. When Ranjeet Singh occupied Lahore there was no opposition from the Mughals or Afghans and all that was needed was to consolidate the Sikh State. In that way Ranjeet Singh was very lucky and he took full advantage thereof. In consolidation, he had to subdue Multan, Derajats, North Western Frontier and Kashmir which he was able to secure by about 1820.

There were numerous Sikh Sardars who had lands belonging to them all over Panjab and Ranjeet Singh had to carry them with him to strengthen the infant Sikh state. In this regard he showed no farsight and started confiscating their territories and leaving an odd village or two for their subsistence. He hounded out Ramgharias from the Sikh state and demolished about 150 forts held by them. Various Sardars left the Sikh state and went into British occupied territories. Had Ranjeet Singh not carried on balatant confiscations of their territories, he would have had the strength to oppose the British who were keeping an eagle’s eye on the situation and were able to put brakes on every intrusion of Ranjeet Singh towards the east. Ranjeet Singh tried to occupy some territories held by cis-Satluj Sardars and in the process lost their support enblock. They accepted the British overtures and joined them enblock. Thus Ranjeet Singh virtually lost the support of all the Sikh Sardars by his unwise and irresponsible policies. His friendship with the Dogras evaporated the moment he shut his eyes in 1839.

Ranjeet Singh’s debaucheries were notorious and the newly resurgent Sikh society did not approve of the same. His calling himself Gurus’ servant and striking coins in Guru’s name, his appearance before Akal Takhat and bargaining over the fine imposed were all gimmicks which did not help him or the Sikh state in any way.

When Marathas chief Holkar came to Panjab in 1805, Ranjeet Singh called a gathering of Sikh Sardars at Akal Takhat. Very few Sardars participated and those who attended did not show any enthusiasm. Ranjeet Singh instead of taking measures to restore the Sikh Commonwealth, let it fade away. With Ranjeet Singh’s death in 1839, the Sikh state broke down like a house of cards and the vigilant British annexed the same to their territories. Ranjeet Singh’s every move may be a success in his personal interest upto a certain extent, but it was having no cementing effect on the consolidation of the Sikh state for which Ranjeet Singh must squarely bear the responsibility. The lowering down of the status of the Akal Takhat from its high position in 1875 was result of his policies.

After the annexation of Panjab the Sikh Gurdwaras and other institutions were placed under the Deputy Commissioners and the role of Akal Takht once again became dormant. It was after the Singh Sabha Movement that the British authorities took away the control of the Gurdwaras from the Mahants and Sarbrahs and gave the same to the Sikhs. Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee was formed in 1920 and once again the role of Akal Takht came into existence. There were some Sikh leaders well versed with Sikh ethos who were made the Jathedars of Akal Takht and slowly the stature of Akal Takht started being recognized by the Sikh community.

After independence in 1947, politicization of Sikh institutions came into existence. But the real politicization commenced with the Akalis coming to power and the SGPC, Akal Takht, and other Sikh institutions like Universities and various corporations etc. became pawns in the hands of the Akali politicians. The degeneration of the Sikh institutions and crumbling of the status of the Jathedars has become rampant. The Jathedars are being criticized openly, whether justified or not, over their moral and financial conduct as well as the correctness of their decisions. The Akal Takht with a superior constitutional status as compared to the rulers since 1765 has become a pawn in the political rivalries of Akali politicians. The sublime status of the Jathedar has today been reduced that of a paid employee of the SGPC, which is working as a subsidiary of Akali Dal, which in turn is a political fiefdom of the powerful Akali leaders. The climb-down of the status of Akal Takht in the times of Maharaja Ranjeet Singh and to that of the present day is a very sorry state of affairs of a premier institution of the Sikhs.



1. Mansukhani, Gobind Singh, The quintessence of Sikhism, SGPC Amritsar, 1965 P. 248
2. Dabastan-i-Mazahib Mohsin Fani, David Shea and Anthony Troyers translation Paris 1843 PP. 233-34
3. Gupta Hari Ram, History of Sikhs, Vol. 1. Munshi Ram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi 1994, P. 152
4. Tauzak-i-Jahangiri (Translation under Elexender Rodgers), 1978 Edition, Munshi Ram Manoharlal New Delhi, P. 72
5. Macauliffe Max Arthur, The Sikh Religion Vol. 3 S. Chand & co. New Delhi 1985 P. 99
6. Platos “Republic” Book V, D R Bhandari, History of European Political Philosophy, Banglore 1948 P. 22
7. Peter Van Der Veer, Gods on Earth, Oxford University Press Delhi 1989, P. 86
8. Ibid, P. 137
9. Ibid, P. 88
10. Ibid, P. 112-13
11. Ibid, P. 133
12. Dabastan-i-Mazahib op-cit, P. 235-36
13. Tarlochan Singh, Guru Tegh Bahadur, Gurdwara Parbandak Committee Delhi 1965, P. 12 footnote 4
14. Ibid, P. 12
15. Hari Ram Gupta, History of Sikhs Vol 1, op-cit, P. 157
16. Hari Ram Gupta, Ibid, P. 157-58
17. Hari Ram Gupta, Ibid, P. 160
18. Macauliffe, The Sikh Religion op-cit, P. 214
19. Nihar Ranjan Ray, The Sikh Gurus and Sikh Society, Munshi Ram Manoharlal New Delhi, 1975. P. 57
20. Hari Ram Gupta, op-cit, P. 163
21. Hari Ram Gupta, op-cit, P. 244
22. Ibid, P. 266-272
23. Ibid, P. 325-327
24. Dharam Pal, Poetry of Dasam Granth, Panjab University Library Chandigarh, P. 26
25. Hari Ram Gupta, op-cit, p. 258
26. Sangat Singh, Sikhs in History, p. 83.
27. Nihar Ranjan Ray, op-cit, P. 25
28. Hari Ram Gupta, Sikh Gurus, op-cit, 1994, P. 320
29. Ibid, P. 321
30. Hari Ram Gupta, History of Sikhs Vol II, op-cit, P. 12-14
31. Hukamnama dated 12.12.1710 and anothe addressed to Bhai Dharam Singh undated, repreoduced in Hukamnamas by Ganda Singh, Panjabi University Patiala, 1985, P. 92-95
32. Surinder Singh, Sikh Coinage, Manohar Publishers New Delhi 2004, P. 41
33. Hari Ram Gupta, History of Sikhs Vol II, P. 31-35
34. J. B. Cunningham, History of Sikhs, S. Chand & Co. New Delhi, 1972. P. 80
35. Hari Ram Gupta, op-cit P. 45
36. K S Thapar, Gurmata, Panjab Past and Present, Panjabi University Patiala, October 1975, P. 285
37. Ibid P. 287
38. Ibid P. 287
39. Ibid P. 289
40. Ibid P. 289
41. Hari Ram Gupta, Sikh History Vol II, P. 227
42. Ibid P. 230
43. Surinder Singh, Sikh Coinage, op-cit, P. 62-63



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